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Safe boating guide 2011 TP511E
Free publication Safe Boating Guide http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm TP 511E ( Jan 2011 )
Office of Boating Safety
Subscribe to the OBS Electronic Mailing List by visiting
http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm
Please direct your comments and inquiries to obs-bsn@tc.gc.ca
Previous Edition: 220,000 copies (12/2009)
Printed in Canada Please direct your orders to: The Order Desk MultiMedia Products and Services Transport Canada (AARA-MPS)2655
Lancaster Road Ottawa ON K1B 4L5
Phone: 1-888-830-4911 (in North America)
613-991-4071 (other countries)
Fax: 613-991-1653
Email: MPS@tc.gc.ca
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Transport, 1956 All rights reserved
No part of this information (publication or product) may be reproduced, or transmited in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, or stored in a retrieval system,
without prior written permission from the minister of public works and government services
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0S5 (or copyright. droitdauteur@pwgsc.gc.ca).
Printed on Forest Stewardship Council-compliant paper.
To learn more, visit http://www.fsccanada.org
Safe Boating Guide 2011 ISBN: 978-1-100-17181-4
Catalogue No. T34-24/2011E TP 511E (01/2011)

TC-1004217 contents introductIon

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What is a Pleasure Craft 1
Changes to Boating Laws 2
GettIng started 3
Construction Requirements for Pleasure Craft 4
Compliance Notices 4
Hull Serial Number 4
Buying a Boat 5
Building a Boat 6
Pleasure Craft Licences 6
Vessel Registration 7
Who Needs Proof of Competency? 8
What are the Accepted forms of Proof of Competency? 8
Why Proof of Competency? 8
If you don’t have a proof of competency, get it 9
Proof of competency and renting a boat 9
Carry your documents 9
Youth must follow age and horsepower restrictions 10
Replacing a lost Pleasure Craft Operator Card 10 - Before you go 1 - Inspect Your Boat 1
Monitor the weather 12
Make and file a sail plan 1
Carry and Use Nautical Charts and Publications 1
Plan to avoid local hazards 1
Safe fuelling 15
Carbon monoxide awareness 1
Fuel-Burning appliances 1
Ignition protection 18
Loading your boat 18
Pleasure Craft courtesy check program 19
Don’t cruise with booze 19
Pre-Departure checklist 20
equipment 21
Minimum safety equipment requirements 22
Alternative requirements for boats involved in competition 30
Operating a personal watercraft 31
Kayaking 32
Fishing and Hunting 32
Personal life saving appliances 32
Vessel safety equipment 37
Visual signals 38
Navigation equipment 39
Fire-Fighting equipment 45
Suggested items 46
on the water 47
Rules of the Road and safety on the water 48
Small Vessel and facility security awareness 53
How you can help 56
Respect and protect Canada’s waterways 58
Vessel Operation Restrictions 61
In an emergency 63
Emergency communications 64
Reacting to an emergency 66
enforcement 69
Enforcement on the water 70
Boating laws and regulations 70
Fines 71
Visitors to Canada 72
reference 73
Quick reference cards 74
Contact information 79
Marine and Air - Search and Rescue Emergency
Telephone numbers 80
Website links 81
Welcome to the Safe Boating Guide.
It has been written to promote safe and responsible boating practices among Canada’s pleasure craft users.
If you remember one thing found between these covers, it should be to always wear your lifejacket or personal flotation device (PFD) when on or near the water.
It could save your life!
While this guide does offer a basic overview of boating safety, it should not be your only source of information.
No matter your age or experience, you should take a boating safety course.
Visit http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm or contact us for a complete list of Transport Canada accredited course providers.
You will find contact information for Transport Canada and other organizations at the end of this guide.
This is not a study guide for the Pleasure Craft Operator Card course or test.
To buy a training manual for the test, contact an accredited course provider.

Introduction
What is a Pleasure Craft?
Changes to Boating Laws

Introduction;
What is a Pleasure Craft? A pleasure craft is any boat that is used only for pleasure activities like fishing, water sports and entertaining friends. It also includes a boat used for subsistence hunting and fishing or for the necessities of daily life.
It does not include a boat that is used for work or commercial activities.
The rules for non-pleasure craft are different from those for pleasure craft so it is important to know the difference.
You must meet the requirements for non-pleasure craft any time you use your pleasure craft for non-pleasure activities.
If you want to know how to operate a passenger vessel, workboat, commercial fishing vessel or any other non-pleasure craft, visit www.tc.gc.ca/marinesafety or contact your local Transport Canada Centre.
When you see the word boat in this guide, it means pleasure craft.
Changes to Boating Laws Because boating laws change, you need to make sure you know the laws that are now in force.
This guide is based on the Small Vessel Regulations that came into force in May 2010.
Since this guide is revised from time to time, be sure you have the most recent version.
If the Safe Boating Guide differs from the regulations, always follow the regulatory text.
You can find it online at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm.
When you see the word vessel, it refers to all boats, both pleasure craft and non-pleasure craft.
In the same way, the word lifejacket includes lifejackets and personal flotation devices (PFDs) everywhere in this guide, except in those sections that describe the differences between lifejackets and PFDs.
Regulations set a minimum safety standard.
They are made to improve boating safety, so following them or an even higher standard will help make every trip a safe one.
Getting Started
Do you want to start boating but you’re not sure what you need to do to get a boat ready for Canada’s waterways?
This section will guide you through getting your boat out on the water for the first time and explain how to make sure that you are ready to operate it safely.
Construction Requirements for Pleasure Craft
Compliance Notices
Hull Serial Number
Buying a Boat
Building a Boat
Pleasure Craft Licences
Vessel Registration
Who Needs Proof of Competency?
What are the Accepted Forms of Proof of Competency?
Why Proof of Competency?
If You Don’t Have Proof of Competency Get It!
Proof of Competency and Renting a Boat
Carry Your Documents!
Youth Must Follow Age and Horsepower Restrictions
Replacing a Lost Pleasure Craft Operator Card 23
Construction requirements for pleasure Craft or as close to that area as possible.
Example: ABC2AB41G203 The HIN is 12 digits long, beginning MIC: ABC; Hull Number: 2AB41;
GettIng Started
Part 7 of the Small Vessel Regulations and Transport Canada’s Construction Standards for Small Vessels specify how small vessels, that are equipped or designed to be equipped with a motor (including pleasure craft up to 24 m or 78’9) and operate in Canada must be built.
If you are selling, importing, building, rebuilding or operating such a vessel in Canada, you must make sure it meets these construction requirements.
Compliance notices Compliance Notices are the manufacturer’s or importer’s confirmation that the vessel is built in accordance with the construction requirements of the Small Vessel Regulations.
Before attaching a Compliance Notice to a vessel, a manufacturer or importer must produce a Declaration of Conformity for the vessel.
The Small Vessel Regulations require, with a few exceptions, that all pleasure craft of less than 24 metres, that are or can be fitted with a motor have a Compliance Notice affixed to them in a location visible from the helm.
Although it is not prohibited to have other types of compliance notices affixed to the vessel, this does not.
Hull Serial number,
All pleasure craft made in Canada, or imported into Canada after August 1, 1981 (with or without a motor), must
have a Hull Serial Number (HIN). No character of the HIN is to be less than 6 mm (¼") in height and width.
The Pleasure craft over 24 m (78’9") must be built or rebuilt according to recommended practices and standards appropriate for that type of vessel and that are published by a marine classification society, standards development organization, government agency, or industrial or trade association. replace the requirement to have a Canadian Compliance Notice attached.
Compliance notices for pleasure craft up to 6 m (19’8") also have information on recommended maximum safe limits.
These recommended maximum safe limits will tell you: what outboard motor sizes are safe;
how many people can be on board; and how much weight the boat can hold.
Remember that this information applies only in good weather.
The number of people who can be carried safely depends on the type of boat, where people and equipment are carried, and weather and water conditions. Operators must know and respect their boat’s limits.
HIN helps to find lost or stolen boats and boats that are subject to a recall.
The HIN must be permanently marked on the outside upper starboard (right side) corner of the transom (the boat’s rear, flat end above the waterline) Remember:
A Canadian Compliance Notice indicates that the boat met the construction requirements at the time it was built, so changes to the boat over time may mean that the Compliance Notice is no longer valid. Once you own the boat, you must make sure that it is up to standard when you operate it on the water — so get all the facts before you buy.
If you are buying a boat from another country, please remember that:
with the Manufacturer’s Identification
Code (MIC). Buying a Boat
If you are buying a new boat in Canada, make sure it has a Hull Serial Number (HIN). If the boat has a motor or is designed to have one, make sure it also has a Canadian Compliance Notice.
Manufacturers and importers must place a HIN and Canadian Compliance Notice on every boat that is or can be fitted with a motor that they sell in Canada after demonstrating that it meets the Canadian construction requirements.
If you see a new boat for sale that does not have the required HIN and Canadian Compliance Notice, Construction requirements for pleasure craft differ from country to country. Make sure that the boat meets the construction requirements of the Small Vessel Regulations or that you can modify the boat to meet these requirements before you operate it. An imported boat must meet the construction requirements that are in force on the day it is imported.

The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) will ask you for specific documents, as well as information Construction Start Date: G2; Model Year: 03.
ask the seller to get them for you before you buy. If you are thinking about buying a used boat, the first thing you should do is make sure that it meets the construction requirements that were in force when it was built. A good way to do this is to hire a competent marine surveyor to examine the boat, who will give you a fair opinion on the boat’s current condition and will let you know what changes (if any) need to be made to bring the boat up to standard.
On the boat and the seller to confirm the sale and assess the duties and taxes on the boat. Before buying the boat, visit the CBSA online at www.cbsa.gc.ca or contact them to find out what you will need from the seller to bring the boat to Canada.
If you will be towing the boat on a trailer, you should know that a trailer is considered a motor vehicle, with requirements that are different from those that apply to your boat. Contact the CBSA to learn more.
If you are buying a trailer, contact your provincial or territorial transportation office to learn about any requirements that may apply.
For a complete list of these offices,
visit www.tc.gc.ca.Building a Boat
If you decide to build or rebuild a pleasure craft, it must meet or exceed the construction requirements of the Small Vessel Regulations and the Construction Standards for Small Vessels (TP 1332E).
If the boat will be for your own personal use, you will not be required to attach a Compliance Notice. However, if you are building the boat to sell it, you must apply to pleasure Craft Licences A pleasure craft licence is a document containing a unique licence number for a pleasure craft.
The pleasure craft licence number must be displayed on both sides of the bow.
You can get a free licence that is valid for 10 years by applying to Transport Canada.
Application forms are available online at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm or for pickup at your local Service Canada Centre.
For Service Canada locations, visit www.servicecanada.gc.ca
If your boat is already licensed, make sure that it is in your name and that your contact information is up to date.
To learn more about getting or transferring a pleasure craft licence, visit http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm or call the Boating Safety Info Line at 1-800-267-6687.
Since there may be export requirements in the country where you plan to buy the boat (and the trailer if you are buying one), contact the appropriate authorities in that country well in advance to find out what they are.
Transport Canada for a Manufacturer’s Identification Code (MIC), produce a declaration of conformity, and place a compliance notice and a HIN on the boat before you sell it.
To get a copy of the Small Vessel Regulations and Transport Canada’s Construction Standards for Small Vessels (TP 1332E), visit http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm or contact us.
If your boat is mostly operated or kept in Canada and is powered by one or more motors adding up to 7.5 kW (10 hp) or more, it must be licensed, unless it is registered.
You will also need to license dinghies or tenders you carry aboard or tow behind a larger boat.
You must keep a copy of the licence on board.You must display your pleasure craft licence number above the waterline on both sides of the bow, as far forward as practical, and where it is easy to see.
The numbers must be in block letters, at least 7.5 cm (3") high, and must contrast with the colour of the background.
If your boat does not need a pleasure craft licence, you can choose to get one for safety reasons.
The Pleasure Craft Licensing System allows Search and Rescue personnel to access information 24 hours a day, seven days a week in the event of an emergency.
This could mean the difference between life and death! Remember:
A pleasure craft licence does not prove ownership and Vessel registrationAlthough you are no longer required to register pleasure craft over 15 gross tons, you can still choose to do so.
Although there are costs involved, registration gives you some important benefits, which include: proof of ownership (legal title) for your boat;
the right to fly the Canadian flag;
a unique name and official number for your boat; and Transport Canada cannot confirm ownership of a licensed pleasure craft.
When entering another country, be sure to have proof of ownership for your boat along with its pleasure craft licence, especially for dinghies or tenders aboard or towed behind a larger boat.
Not having the proper documents on board can result in delays or trouble clearing customs, or even a fine. the right to use your boat as security for a marine mortgage.
Since proof of ownership can be very important at international borders, it is a good idea to register any boat you plan to operate outside of Canada.
To learn more about registering your boat,
visit Transport Canada’s Vessel Registration Office online at www.tc.gc.ca or contact them.

getting started
6 7
Who needs proof of Competency? If You don’t have proof of Competency Get It!

Anyone who operates a motorized vessel, this includes all types of motorized pleasure craft must now carry proof boats, no matter their size of competency on board, 1 or horsepower. What are the accepted Forms of proof of Competency? Proof of competency can be any of the following: - a Pleasure Craft Operator Card (PCOC), this is the most common proof, obtained after passing an accredited boating safety test;
- proof of having passed a boating safety course in Canada before April 1, 1999; Why proof of Competency?
A proof of competency shows that the boater has a basic level of boating safety knowledge needed for safe recreational boating. In the past, anyone of any age could operate a recreational boat without any basic boating safety knowledge, experience - a specified marine certificate
- visit our website (http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm) for the approved list; or
- a completed rental boat safety checklist (good only for rental period). or training. Proof of competency requirements were introduced in 1999 in response to boating deaths and injuries, with the goal of improving safety on Canadian waterways through education and training. If you don’t have proof of competency and you plan to operate a motorized pleasure craft, you must obtain a Pleasure Craft Operator Card by passing an accredited test.
2. Transport Canada recommends taking a boating safety course as the best way to prepare for the test. Taking a course, while not required, is a small investment that has a big payoff: it will help you to be more aware of safe boating practices, prevention measures, and practical ways to reduce risks. The course itself covers a full range of basic boating information such as:
- the minimum safety equipment required on board your boat;
- the Canadian buoyage system;
- how to share waterways;
- a review of all pertinent regulations; and how to respond in an emergency situation.
There are other options, too, such as home study, online courses and tests, and challenge testing. Boating safety course and test services are available only through accredited private-sector course providers (a list of accredited providers appears on our website at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm). Carry Your documents!
Proof of competency and renting a Boat;
If you plan on renting a boat and you don’t already have proof of competency (such as a Pleasure Craft Operator Card or specified marine certificate), then you may complete the rental boat safety checklist as proof of competency.
The rental agency provides you with a basic safety orientation to the boat, its equipment and features, and information about any hazards in the local waterways. A rental boat safety checklist (provided by the rental agency) is used as a reference for this orientation, which both parties (rental agency and the boat operator) sign. The boat operator carries the completed rental boat safety checklist on board and it serves as proof of competency for the rental period only. Getting started
1 Proof of competency is not required in the waters of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
Make sure you have your proof of competency with you before you head out on the water. You’ll also need to carry your personal identification, such as a photo ID. If your motor is 7.5 kW (10 hp) or more, you will also need to carry the Pleasure Craft Licence on board.
2 If you plan to only operate a boat that you have rented, you may complete a rental boat safety
checklist; we describe this option in the next section. Boating is fun, but nearly 150 people die and many more get seriously hurt every year in boating incidents. Boating deaths and injuries can be avoided.
This section will help you get your boat, your guests and yourself prepared before heading out on the water.
Age Horsepower restrictions;
Under 12 years of age with no direct supervision may operate a boat with up to 7.5 kW (10 hp)
Ages 12 to under 16 with no direct supervision May operate a boat with up to 30 kW (40 hp)
Under 16 years of age, regardless of supervision May not operate a PWC
16 years of age or older No horsepower restrictions,Replacing a lost pleasure Craft operator Card
The Pleasure Craft Operator Card is good for life. Remember to make a photocopy of your card as soon as you get it so you can have it replaced if you lose it. To replace a lost card, contact the course provider that issued it to request a replacement card.
There is often a cost for this service. For a complete list of course providers, visit http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm.
If you can’t remember the name of the course provider that issued your card, ask yourself the following:
- Did I take the test with a family member or friend? If yes, check with that person. The name of the course provider will be on his or her card.
- Did I keep a copy of my receipt or the letter that came in the mail with my card attached to it? If yes, you will find the course provider’s name on both of these documents.
- Still can’t remember? Or can’t find the course provider’s name on our list? Contact the Office of Boating Safety nearest you for assistance (see page 79 of this guide).
Youth under 16 years of age may not operate boats with motors over certain horsepower limits unless someone 16 years of age or older is in the boat and directly supervising them.
Youth under 16 years of age may not
operate a personal watercraft (PWC)(Powercraft) under any circumstances.
Are you old enough to operate a motorized boat?
Youth must Follow age and horsepower restrictions
Remember:
These restrictions are separate from the requirement for proof of competency and both must be followed. This means that youth under 16 years of age require proof of competency to operate any motorized boat, supervised or not. Getting started
10
BeFore You Go
11
Inspect Your Boat
Monitor the Weather
Make and File a Sail Plan
Carry and Use Nautical Charts and Publications
Plan to Avoid Local Hazards
Safe Fuelling
Carbon Monoxide Awareness
Fuel-Burning Appliances
Ignition Protection
Loading Your Boat
Pleasure Craft Courtesy Check Program
Don’t Cruise with Booze
Pre-Departure Checklist
BeFore You Go
Inspect Your Boat It is better to take a few minutes to make sure you are ready to boat safely before you leave than to risk problems when you are out on the water. More than half of all calls for help are from boaters in trouble because of motor problems, including many boats that are stranded because they ran out of fuel! Operating a boat that you know is not seaworthy is against the law. Your boat, its engine and all equipment must be kept in good working order. Whether Monitor the Weather
Weather and water conditions play a big role in your safety on the water.
Before heading out, make sure you get the latest forecast for your area and that you understand what it means. You should also be aware of local factors (like topography) that may cause weather conditions to differ from the forecast. The best source for this information is people who know the area well.
Summer thunderstorms can strike quickly and without warning so while you’re out, remember to keep your eye on the sky.
If it starts to look dark and cloudy, and conditions are changing quickly, head for shore. Remember to check your up-to-date nautical charts in advance so that you’ll know where to seek shelter. if you own, rent or are borrowing a boat, use the Pre-Departure Checklist to make sure you are ready before leaving (see page 20 of this guide). Make sure you explain safe operation to everyone on board before heading out.
Tell your guests where the safety equipment is kept and how to use it.
Make sure that at least one other person on board knows how to operate the boat in case something happens to you. Environment Canada provides marine forecasts in many ways. If you have a marine radio, you can get weather updates while you’re on the water.
These forecasts provide information on wind speed and direction, weather, visibility and freezing spray (if applicable). Forecasts are issued several times a day. Some forecasts discuss current conditions while others discuss the conditions to expect over several days. When high wind speeds are expected,
Environment Canada will issue a wind warning in the marine forecast: - Strong Wind Warning (20 to 33 knots) (37 to 61 km/h)
- Gale Warning (34 to 47 knots) (62 to 87 km/h)
- Storm Warning (48 to 63 knots) (88 to 117 km/h)
- Hurricane Force Wind Warning (64 knots or more) (118 km/h or more) (This warning does not mean that a hurricane is expected or is taking place.) make and File a Sail plan A sail plan includes your planned travel route and describes your boat. Sail plans are also called trip or float plans.
No matter what you call them, you should file one before heading out even if it is just for an hour or two. File your sail plan with someone you trust and tell them to contact a Rescue Coordination Centre if you are late.
Their telephone numbers are listed at the back of this guide. One knot is one nautical mile an hour or 1.852 km/h. Marine weather forecasts are available 24 hours a day in some areas through Environment Canada’s Weatheradio service on the VHF-FM radio band. To get these forecasts, you need a Weatheradio receiver or a VHF marine radio.
For more details, visit www.msc-smc.ec.gc. ca/msb/weatheradio
You can also get continuous forecasts from the Canadian Coast Guard on marine VHF weather channels.
For a complete list of Environment Canada weather services across Canada, visit www.weatheroffice.gc.ca or contact them.
If you are taking a long trip, you should file a daily position report (especially if your planned route has changed).
Be sure to let people know when you have returned or safely arrived at your next stop.
If you don’t, people may worry and launch a search, which can waste Search and Rescue resources.
This guide includes a sail plan you can photocopy and use (see page 74 of this guide).
12 13
Carry and use official nautical charts and publications plan to avoid local hazards

An open body of water may seem inviting, but remember that there are no clearly marked traffic lanes on the water.
This, as well as the absence of signs that clearly tell us where we are, can make navigation difficult.
To help make navigation safer, you must carry the following for each area you plan to boat in:
- the latest edition of the largest officially produced chart available; and the latest edition of related documents and publications, including notices to mariners, sailing directions, tide and current tables, and the list of lights, buoys and fog signals.
If you are operating a boat under 100 gross tons, you do not have to carry these charts, documents and publications on board as long as you know: - the location and type of charted:
- shipping routes;
- lights, buoys and marks;
- boating hazards; and
- the area’s usual boating conditions, such as tides, currents, ice and weather patterns. Before heading out, you should make sure you know:
- how to plot a course;
- how to determine your position; and
- how to use:
- a compass along with nautical charts;
- electronic navigation equipment; and
- references such as tide tables, Canada’s buoyage system, navigation lights and signals, Notices to Mariners and Sailing Directions.
Avoid potential danger by steering clear of rapids and currents, and be sure not to obstruct commercial navigation in commercial shipping channels.
The Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) is the official source for navigational publications, raster BSBs and vector Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs) in Canada’s waters.
Under the Charts and Nautical Publications Regulations made pursuant to the Canada Shipping Act, 2001, boaters must use charts issued officially or on the authority of the CHS. You can buy official paper and digital charts from authorized chart dealers.
For more information or to find the nearest authorized chart dealer, visit www.charts.gc.ca or contact the CHS at 1-866-546-3613 or at chsinfo@dfo-mpo.gc.ca. Being prepared means more than having your boat and equipment in good working order.
You should also:
- check nautical charts for overhead obstacles, bridges and underwater cables in your boating area;
- read nautical charts with publications like Sailing Directions
- looking at tide tables and current atlases will also help you learn about water levels, times of low, slack and high tides, and the direction of water flow; Safe Fuelling
Leaking or spilled fuel not only harms the marine environment but is also a fire hazard.
Follow these steps when fuelling; it’s the safe thing to do and it’s the law.
. Moor your boat securely to prevent spills.
. Shut off all engines.
. Send guests ashore.
. Put out all open flames.
. Do not smoke.
. Turn off electrical switches and power supplies.
. Do not use electrical devices such as portable radios.
. Close all windows, portholes, hatches and cabin doors.
. Remove portable tanks from the vessel before refuelling.
. Ground the nozzle against the filler pipe.
. Know how much fuel your tank can hold and do not overfill it, you have a duty to prevent fuel leaks and spills into your boat’s hull and the water.
. Wipe up spills and dispose of the used cloth or towel in an approved container.
. Run the engine compartment blower for at least four minutes immediately before starting the gasoline engine.
. Check for vapours from the engine compartment before starting up the engine.New environmental laws affecting diesel fuel mean that the type of diesel available at the pump changes often.
Follow the safety instructions provided by fuel suppliers, as well as your boat’s engine and system user manuals. Stay away from swimming areas even canoes and kayaks can injure swimmers;
- avoid boating too close to shore; and talk to local residents who know the waters if you are in an area that is not covered by nautical charts — they may be able to point out low-head dams, rapids and white water, and describe local wind conditions, currents and areas of rapid high-wave buildup.
14 15 Carbon monoxide awareness
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a deadly gas you can’t see, smell or taste. CO can come from anything that burns a carbon-based fuel (gasoline, propane, charcoal, oil, etc.) so it can be created by engines, gas generators, cooking ranges, heaters and the like. CO acts a lot like air.
It doesn’t rise or fall but spreads evenly throughout an enclosed space. (CO) comes in through your lungs and cuts off the oxygen supply to your body, causing death in minutes. Be alert! Symptoms include headaches, nausea and fatigue but you might think you are just seasick or have the flu. Here are some tips to help protect yourself and others from CO poisoning. - Idle your engine only in well ventilated areas. A tail wind can easily carry CO back on board.
- Heat the cabin or cook only when in a well-ventilated area.
- Make sure that cabin extensions and areas fitted with canvas tops are well ventilated.
- Use only fuel-burning engines or appliances that are certified or designed for marine use and make sure they are used only in well-ventilated areas.
- Use a marine-grade CO detector and check its batteries before every trip.
- Be aware that CO can build up when:
- two vessels are tied to each other;
- you are docked alongside a seawall;
- your load causes the bow to ride high; or a fuel-burning appliance or engine is running while your vessel is not moving.Fuel-Burning appliances
Gas vapours and leaking propane and butane are heavier than air and will quickly flow into the lower parts of your boat. They are very hard to remove and are highly explosive.
On board appliances that run on propane or butane may present more risk than gasoline.Here are some tips for using propane and butane safely.
- Appliances and systems should be designed for marine use and be installed in accordance with a marine standard and the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Ask a qualified technician to perform installation, maintenance or repairs.
- Use a fuel-burning appliance only when in a well-ventilated area.
- Secure portable appliances and heaters so that unexpected movement doesn’t cause a leak.
- Secure gas cylinders and tanks in an area with good ventilation.
- Always attend to an open flame heating, cooking or refrigeration system.
CO is not just a risk to boaters. You, too, can be overcome by breathing CO and drown in just minutes! Areas of high risk are under swim platforms and between the pontoons of houseboats.Typical ventilation system:
Typical propane installation with ventilation:
Warning to Swimmers:

16 17
Ignition protection pleasure Craft Courtesy Check program
Every boat that has a gasoline engine or uses propane devices must have ignition-protected electrical devices.
These parts are designed and made so that, under normal conditions, they will not ignite gasoline or propane fumes or vapour. This protection prevents sparks from escaping during use. Only use electrical components that are clearly labelled as ignition protected. Many older boats, and even some new ones, have been fitted with converted car or truck engines. If you are not sure that your engine has ignition-protected parts in it, have it serviced by a certified marine technician. He or she can tell you if a replacement part (or related work done to the engine) has put the engine’s ignition protection, and you, at risk.Loading Your Boat;
Overloading your boat with people, equipment or both is dangerous. Your boat’s safety on the water depends on how much you put on the boat and where you put it. Too much weight will make your boat unstable and allow small waves to come on board. It will also reduce the amount your boat can roll before its sides dip under water. The higher the weight carried on board, the more your boat is likely to roll, making it harder for it to stabilize. As the boat operator, you should follow the recommended maximum safe limits on the Transport Canada Compliance Notice. But remember, these limits apply only in good weather and they assume the weight is evenly distributed on board, so you should use your judgment when conditions are less than perfect. Keep the load as low as possible and secure equipment to keep it from shifting and making your boat unstable.If your boat is over 6 m (19’8"), its Compliance Notice will not have any recommended limits.
However, these boats can also become unstable if overloaded. You should refer to your boat’s manufacturer for guidance and use your judgment when loading and operating the boat. Transport Canada works with boating safety organizations like the Canadian Power & Sail Squadrons (CPS) to offer free courtesy checks for pleasure craft. Check the CPS website (www.cps-ecp.ca/public.asp)to learn about the Recreational Vessel Courtesy Check Program. If you agree to have a check done, a trained boating safety volunteer will board your boat, while alongside a dock or at a boat ramp, to: - check out the safety equipment and other requirements;
Identify any problems; and discuss general boating safety issues.
Education and prevention are the keys to this program. Since there are never any penalties involved, it’s a great opportunity to learn more about boating safety and make sure that you are ready to head out on the water. The knowledge you gain from a courtesy check will help you to stay safe on the water year after year. Don’t Cruise with Booze;
Mixing alcohol and boating is far more dangerous than you may think. Under normal conditions, sun, wind, the motion of the boat and even just being tired can dull your senses. Alcohol makes things even worse, slowing your hand-eye coordination and clouding your good judgment. Don’t cruise with booze! You might harm yourself or others. You are responsible for the safety of your guests and for not putting other waterway users in danger. You must always be prepared and alert. Drinking and driving (whether on land or water) is against the law and the consequences, even for a first offence, can last a lifetime. Provinces and territories have their own rules on legal alcohol limits when you can drink and how alcohol can be carried on board. Contact your local law enforcement authorities for more information.
Note: The Recreational Vessel Courtesy Check Program is an educational program being delivered on behalf of Transport Canada. The term "on board" means only that the equipment was on board at the time of check. Transport Canada does not warrant the condition of the vessel or any of the equipment on board. Responsibility for meeting all regulations, and for the safety of the vessel and related equipment lies solely with the vessel owner/operator.
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Having the right equipment on board can save your life. If something goes wrong on the water, you’ll be much better prepared to deal with it if you have the right equipment on board, if it’s in good working order and if everyone can find it and use it. Remember, the best protection you can give yourself on the water is to wear your lifejacket!
This section starts off by listing the minimum safety equipment that is required on your boat, followed by some extra advice for specific activities. Finally, it offers more information on the equipment you need and how to use it.

Pre-departure Checklist
Be Prepared for the Unexpected, Check This List Before Every Trip ..Lifejackets, Wear Them!

- Carry a Canadian-approved lifejacket for everyone on board.
- Make sure the lifejackets are in good condition (check the zippers, buckles, fabric, seams, etc.).
- Check that they are properly sized to fit each person on board. ..Operator Competency, Are You Ready to Head out on the Water?
- Take a boating safety course.
- Keep your Pleasure Craft Operator Card or other proof of competency on board. ..Weather, Check and Monitor the Marine Weather
Forecast Sail Plan, File Your Plan Before Heading Out
- See page 74 of this guide for a sample sail plan.
- Tell a person you trust where you are going and when you will be back. ..Safety Equipment, Required by Law and Essential for Safety
- See page 22 of this guide for the equipment required for your boat.
- Make sure all equipment is on board, in good working order and easy to reach.
- Carry a first aid kit, basic tools and spare parts. ..Charts, Compass and Local Hazards, Know where you are at all times
- Make sure you are aware of all local hazards, water levels and tides. ..Fuel, Check Your Tank and Remember: 1/3 to go, 1/3 to return, 1/3 reserve ..Boat Condition, Should Your Boat Leave the Dock?
- Check the hull for cracks or other damage.
- Check the electrical, fuel, propulsion and cooling systems.
- Make sure the throttle and steering work well.
- Check the oil.
- Check all hoses and lines for leaks or cracks and replace if necessary.
- Make sure all clamps and belts are secure and in good shape.
- Inspect, clean and replace spark plugs if necessary.
- Check and change oil and water filters if needed.
- Check the battery’s charge.
- Make sure the drainage plug is in place.
- Carry spare plugs for all through hull fittings.
- Make sure the load on your boat (gear and occupants) is well distributed.
- Run the blowers for four minutes before starting the engine(s), check for airflow. ..Safety Briefing,
- You Are Legally Responsible for Your Guests
- Show everyone where the safety equipment is located and how to use it.
- Make sure the communication equipment works and that everyone can use it.

Equipment 21
Minimum Safety Equipment requirements alternative requirements for boats involved in competition operating a Personal Watercraft Kayaking
Fishing and hunting
Personal lifesaving appliances
Vessel Safety Equipment
Visual Signals
Navigation Equipment
Fire-Fighting Equipment
Suggested items
If you want information on operating a vessel for work or commercial activities (non-pleasure craft), visit www.tc.gc.ca/marinesafety or contact your local Transport canada centre.
These requirements do not apply to inflatable self-propelled water toys because these toys are not designed for use in open water. if you do choose to operate these toys in open water, they will be treated as pleasure craft and subject to the same strict rules.
remember as well that operating a propeller driven surfboard is against the law in canada. The following list of equipment is the minimum that is required. you may want to bring more equipment based on your type of boat, your water activity, and the current and forecast weather and water conditions.
Boat type and length personal lifesaving appliances vessel safety equipment (See Note 1, page 28) visual signals (See Note 2, page 28) navigation equipment fire-fighting equipment paddleboats, watercycles, sealed-hull and sit-on-top Kayaks Equipment listed in 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 is not required if everyone on board is wearing a lifejacket or PFD.
1. one (1) lifejacket or PFD for each person on board 2. one (1) buoyant heaving line at least 15 m (49’3") long 3. one (1) reboarding device 4. one (1) bailer or manual bilge pump or bilge-pumping arrangements if boat is over 6 meters. 5. one (1) watertight flashlight 6. Six (6) flares of Type a, b or c 7. one (1) sound-signalling device or appliance 8. **Navigation lights 9. ***one (1) magnetic compass 10. one (1) radar reflector (See Note 3, p. 28)
canoes, kayaks, rowboats, rowing shells and other human-powered boats 1. one (1) lifejacket or PFD for each person on board 2. one (1) buoyant heaving line at least 15 m (49’3") long 3. *one (1) reboarding device 4. one (1) bailer or manual bilge pump or bilge-pumping arrangements if boat is over 6 m: 5. one (1) watertight flashlight 6. Six (6) flares of Type a, b or c 7. one (1) sound-signalling device or appliance 8. **Navigation lights 9. ***one (1) magnetic compass 10.
one (1) radar reflector (See Note 3, p. 28) Minimum Safety equipment requirements The safety equipment canada requires you to carry on board is based on the type and length of your boat. it must be on board, in good working order and always easy to reach so that it can be used in an emergency. you can find the length of your boat by reading the manufacturer’s product information or by measuring it yourself (from the front outside surface of the hull shell to the back outside surface of the hull shell, bow to stern).
remember that these requirements apply only to pleasure craft and are the same whether you own, rent or borrow the boat. This includes typical boats like power boats, sail boats and personal watercraft, as well as less common boats like airboats, air cushion vehicles (hovercraft) and wing-in-ground effect vessels that are used only for recreation. These requirements also apply to kiteboards. remember: all safety equipment must be canadian-approved and there must be enough lifejackets that fit, have enough buoyancy and are in good condition for everyone on board your boat. Minimum Safety Equipment requirements by boat Type and length * only required if the vertical height that must be climbed to reboard the boat from the water is over 0.5 m (1’8"). ** only required if the boat is operated after sunset, before sunrise or in periods of restricted visibility (fog, falling snow, etc.). *** Not required if the boat is 8 m (26’3") or less and operated within sight of navigation marks.

Equipment
22, 23
boat type and length personal lifesaving appliances vessel safety equipment (See Note 1, page 28)
visual signals (See Note 2, page 28)
navigation equipment fire-fighting equipment sailboards and Kiteboards Equipment listed in 2, 3, 4 and 5 is not required if operator is wearing a lifejacket or PFD.
lifejacket or PFD must NoT be fitted with an automatic inflator. 1. one (1) lifejacket or PFD for each person on board 2. one (1) buoyant heaving line at least 15 m (49’3") long 3. *one (1) reboarding device 4. one (1) manual propelling device or one (1) anchor and at least 15 m (49’3") of cable, rope or chain in any combination 5. one (1) bailer or manual bilge pump 6. one (1) sound-signalling device or appliance 7. **Navigation lights 8. ***one (1) magnetic compass 9. one (1) radar reflector (See Note 3, p. 28)
personal watercraft (pwc) Equipment listed in 2, 3, 4, 5 and 11 is not required if everyone on board is wearing a lifejacket or PFD. lifejacket or PFD must be inherently buoyant. 1. one (1) lifejacket or PFD for each person on board 2. one (1) buoyant heaving line at least 15 m (49’3”) long 3. *one (1) reboarding device 4. one (1) manual propelling device or one (1) anchor and at least 15 m (49’3”) of cable, rope or chain in any combination 5. one (1) bailer or manual bilge pump 6. one (1) watertight flashlight or Three (3) flares of Type a, b or c 7. one (1) sound-signalling device or appliance 8. **Navigation lights 9. ***one (1) magnetic compass 10. one (1) radar reflector (See Note 3, p. 28) 11. one (1) 5b: c fire extinguisher sail and power boats up to 6 m (19’8”) 1. one (1) lifejacket or PFD for each person on board 2. one (1) buoyant heaving line at least 15 m (49’3”) long 3. *one (1) reboarding device 4. one (1) manual propelling device or one (1) anchor and at least 15 m (49’3”) of cable, rope or chain in any combination 5. one (1) bailer or manual bilge pump if boat is equipped with a motor: 6. one (1) watertight flashlight or Three (3) flares of Type a, b or c 7. one (1) sound-signalling device or appliance 8. **Navigation lights 9. ***one (1) magnetic compass 10.one (1) radar reflector (See Note 3, p. 28) 11.one (1) 5b: c fire extinguisher if equipped with an inboard engine, a fixed fuel tank of any size, or a fuel-burning cooking, heating or refrigerating appliance sail and power boats over 6 m and up to 9 m (19’8” – 29’6”) 1. one (1) lifejacket or PFD for each person on board 2. one (1) buoyant heaving line at least 15 m (49’3”) long or one (1) lifebuoy attached to a buoyant line at least 15 m (49’3”) long 3. *one (1) reboarding device 4. one (1) manual propelling device or one (1) anchor and at least 15 m (49’3”) of cable, rope or chain in any combination 5. one (1) bailer or manual bilge pump 6. one (1) watertight flashlight 7. Six (6) flares of Type a, b or c 8. one (1) sound-signalling device or appliance 9. **Navigation lights 10.***one (1) magnetic compass 11.one (1) radar reflector (See Note 3, p. 28) 12.one (1) 5b: c fire extinguisher if equipped with a motor 13.one (1) 5b: c fire extinguisher if equipped with a fuel-burning cooking, heating or refrigerating appliance * only required if the vertical height that must be climbed to reboard the boat from the water is over 0.5 m (1’8”). ** only required if the boat is operated after sunset, before sunrise or in periods of restricted visibility (fog, falling snow, etc.). *** Not required if the boat is 8 m (26’3”) or less and operated within sight of navigation marks. equipment 24 25 boat type and length personal lifesaving appliances vessel safety equipment (See Note 1, page 28) visual signals (See Note 2, page 28) navigation equipment fire-fighting equipment sail and power boats over 9 m and up to 12 m (29’6” – 39’4”) 1. one (1) lifejacket or PFD for each person on board 2. one (1) buoyant heaving line at least 15 m (49’3”) long 3. one (1) lifebuoy attached to a buoyant line at least 15 m (49’3”) long 4. *one (1) reboarding device 5. one (1) anchor and at least 30 m (98’5”) of cable, rope or chain in any combination 6. one (1) manual bilge pump or bilge-pumping arrangements 7. one (1) watertight flashlight 8. Twelve (12) flares of Type a, b, c or D, not more than six (6) of which are of Type D 9. one (1) sound-signalling device or appliance 10.Navigation lights 11.one (1) magnetic compass 12.one (1) radar reflector (See Note 3, p. 28) 13.one (1) 10b: c fire extinguisher if equipped with a motor 14.one (1) 10b: c fire extinguisher if equipped with a fuel-burning cooking, heating or refrigerating appliance sail and power boats over 12 m and up to 24 m (39’4” – 78’9”) 1. one (1) lifejacket or PFD for each person on board 2. one (1) buoyant heaving line at least 15 m (49’3”) long 3. one (1) lifebuoy equipped with a self-igniting light or attached to a buoyant line at least 15 m (49’3”) long 4. *one (1) reboarding device 5. one (1) anchor and at least 50 m (164’1”) of cable, rope or chain in any combination 6. bilge-pumping arrangements 7. one (1) watertight flashlight 8. Twelve (12) flares of Type a, b, c or D, not more than six (6) of which are of Type D 9. one (1) sound- signalling appliance Two (2) required if the boat is 20 m and over that meets the applicable standards set out in the collision regulations 10.Navigation lights 11.one (1) magnetic compass that meets the requirements set out in the Navigation Safety regulations 12.one (1) radar reflector (See Note 3, p.28) 13.review all the fire extinguishers at all of the following locations: – at each access to any space where a fuel- burning cooking, heating or refrigerating appliance is fitted; – at the entrance to any accommodation space; and – at the entrance to the machinery space. 14.one (1) axe 15.Two (2) buckets of at least 10 l each * only required if the vertical height that must be climbed to reboard the boat from the water is over 0.5 m (1’8”). ** only required if the boat is operated after sunset, before sunrise or in periods of restricted visibility (fog, falling snow, etc.). *** Not required if the boat is 8 m (26’3”) or less and operated within sight of navigation marks. equipment 26 27 boat type and length personal lifesaving appliances vessel safety equipment (See Note 1, page 28) visual signals (See Note 2, page 28) navigation equipment fire-fighting equipment sail and power boats over 24 m (78’9”) 1. one (1) lifejacket or PFD for each person on board 2. one (1) buoyant heaving line at least 30 m (98’5”) long 3. Two (2) SolaS lifebuoys, of which: – one (1) is attached to a buoyant line at least 30 m (98’5”) long; and – one (1) is equipped with a self-igniting light 4. lifting harness with appropriate rigging 5. *one (1) reboarding device 6. one (1) anchor and at least 50 m (164’1”) of cable, rope or chain in any combination 7. bilge-pumping arrangements 8. one (1) watertight flashlight 9. Twelve (12) flares of Type a, b, c or D, not more than six (6) of which are of Type D 10.Two (2) sound-signalling appliances that meet the applicable standards set out in the collision regulations 11.Navigation lights 12.one (1) magnetic compass that meets the requirements set out in the Navigation Safety regulations 14.one (1) 10b: c fire extinguisher at all of the following locations: – at each access to any space where a fuel- burning cooking, heating or refrigerating appliance is fitted; – at the entrance to any accommodation space; and – at the entrance to the machinery space 15.one (1) power-driven fire pump located outside the machinery space, with one fire hose and nozzle that can direct water into any part of the boat 16.Two (2) axes 17.Four (4) buckets of at least 10 l each Note 1 — Exception for bailers and Manual bilge Pumps a bailer or manual bilge pump is not required for a boat that cannot hold enough water to make it capsize or a boat that has watertight compartments that are sealed and not readily accessible.
Note 2 — Exception for Flares Flares are not required for a boat that: • is operating on a river, canal or lake in which it can never be more than one (1) nautical mile (1.852 km) from shore; or • has no sleeping quarters and is engaged in an official competition or in final preparation for an official competition. Note 3 — radar reflectors radar reflectors are required for boats under 20 m (65’7”) and boats that are built of mostly non-metallic materials. a radar reflector is not required if: • the boat operates in limited traffic conditions, daylight and favourable environmental conditions, and where having a radar reflector is not essential to the boat’s safety; or • the small size of the boat or its operation away from radar navigation makes having a radar reflector impractical. * only required if the vertical height that must be climbed to reboard the boat from the water is over 0.5 m (1’8”). ** only required if the boat is operated after sunset, before sunrise or in periods of restricted visibility (fog, falling snow, etc.). *** Not required if the boat is 8 m (26’3”) or less and operated within sight of navigation marks.
Disclaimer: boating laws change from time to time, so make sure you have the most current information. if the Safe boating guide differs from the regulations, remember that it is always the current regulatory text that applies. equipment 28 29 alternative requirements for boats involved in competition is your boat used for racing? you may be allowed to carry alternative safety equipment when engaged in formal training, in an official competition or in final preparation for an official competition. equipment Formal training means practice for an official competition under the supervision of a coach or official certified by a governing body. official competition means a competition or regatta organized by a governing body or by a club or an organization that is affiliated with a governing body. Final preparation for an official competition means activities to prepare for the competitions that take place at the competition venue and during the times specified by the event organizer. governing body means a national water sport governing body that publishes rules and criteria respecting conduct and safety requirements for skill demonstrations, formal training or official competitions and that: • certifies coaches and coaching programs; • certifies officials and programs for officials; or • recommends training and safety guidelines for certified coaches or officials.
Safety craft means a vessel, aircraft or other means of transport with a crew on board that is used for watch and rescue during formal training, final preparation or official competitions. racing canoes, racing kayaks and rowing shells do not have to carry the equipment listed in this guide if they (and their crews) are engaged in formal training, in an official competition or in final preparation for an official competition and: • are attended by a safety craft that, in addition to its own safety equipment, carries a lifejacket that fits for each crew member of the racing boat with the biggest crew; or if they carry: • a lifejacket that fits for each crew member; • a sound-signalling device; and • a watertight flashlight if operated after sunset, before sunrise or in periods of poor visibility. in addition to the alternatives outlined above, rowing shells do not have to carry the equipment listed in this guide if they are competing in an official provincial, national or international regatta or competition, or are engaged in training at the event’s venue. racing-type boats (other than canoes, kayaks and rowing shells) do not have to carry the equipment listed in this guide if they: • are engaged in formal training, in an official competition or in final preparation for an official competition; • are operated under conditions of clear visibility; • are attended by a safety craft; and • carry the safety equipment required by the rules of their sport’s governing body. a sailboard or kiteboard does not have to carry the equipment listed in this guide if it carries a sound- signalling device or appliance and is engaged in an official competition where an attending safety craft carries a lifejacket that fits the sail/ kite boarder and that can be put on in the water (PFDs with automatic inflators are not allowed). operating a personal Watercraft Safe use of a personal watercraft (PWc) requires skill and experience.
PWc operators must be at least 16 years old and have proof of competency and proof of age on board. before you let someone borrow your PWc, you must make sure that they know how to operate it safely and responsibly. here are some other basic tips: • always wear a canadian-approved lifejacket (inflatable PFDs are not allowed) coloured red, orange or yellow to make it easy for others to see you. • Wear thermal protection when operating in cold water (water less than 15°c). • read the owner’s manual before setting out. • attach the engine shut-off line securely to your wrist or lifejacket. • respect speed limits and other vessel operation restrictions. • be cautious, courteous and respect your neighbours.
Many people dislike the noise a PWc makes when it is operated for long periods of time at high speed in one place, especially when it is used to jump waves. • be aware of the impact your PWc can have on the environment. avoid high speeds near shore. • Stay alert! at high speeds, it’s hard to see swimmers, water skiers, divers and other PWcs in time to avoid them. • Do not operate your PWc after dark or when visibility is poor. • Make sure your PWc is properly licensed and marked. • Do not start your PWc if you smell gasoline or fumes in the engine compartment. have a qualified technician check it. • replace the engine cover or seat before starting.
To learn more about operating a PWc, check out the Safety rules and Tips for Personal Watercraft (PWc) Use brochure at
http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm.
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personal lifesaving appliances lifejackets come in red, orange or yellow.
This makes you much easier to see in the water. right now there are three canadian-approved lifejacket types to choose from. solas (safety of life at sea) lifejacKets standard type lifejacKets small vessel lifejacKets performance in the water best performance — Will turn you on your back in seconds to keep your face out of the water, even if you are unconscious Slower Performance — Will turn you on your back to keep your face out of the water, even if you are unconscious,
Slowest Performance — Will turn you on your back to keep your face out of the water, even if you are unconscious, but may do so more slowly sizes (by body weight ) available in 2 sizes: — over 32 kg (70 lbs) — less than 32 kg (70 lbs) available in 2 sizes: — over 40 kg (88 lbs) — less than 40 kg (88 lbs) available in 3 sizes: — over 41 kg (90 lbs) — 18 kg (40 lbs) to 41 kg (90 lbs) — less than 18 kg (40 lbs)

Models available;
Keyhole Vest Future types and designs of lifejackets, including inflatables, that meet the new lifejacket standard adopted in 2007, will offer more comfort and better performance. about 90 percent of people who drown in recreational boating incidents are not wearing a lifejacket. Even if you have one on board, conditions like rough winds and waves, and cold water can make it really hard, if not impossible, to find it and put it on. Worse yet, if you unexpectedly fall into the water, the boat (with your lifejacket on board) could be too far away to reach. are you planning a trip across the lake to do some fishing or hunting? it takes more than steering your boat to get from point a to point b. here are some other things to consider: • always wear a canadian-approved lifejacket coloured red, orange or yellow to make it easy for others to see you. • avoid overloading the boat. • Know your boat’s ability to manoeuvre and its limits. • Never cruise with booze. • learn about weather patterns, hypothermia and cold shock. one small mistake can put you in the water and your survival could depend on you and your guests being prepared. • Dress for boating.
Some gear, such as hip waders, should never be worn in boats. • have a way to contact your loved ones to let them know if your plans change —especially if you have filed a sail plan and are expected home at a certain time.
Fishing and hunting a lifejacket is the best insurance you can have — so find one that suits your needs and wear it on or near the water! although you can choose between lifejackets and PFDs, keep in mind that lifejackets offer a higher level of protection. lifesaving cushions are not approved as safety equipment on any boat.
To find a list of all canadian-approved lifejackets and PFDs, check out the approved Products catalogue index at www.tc.gc.ca. choose a bright colour such as red, yellow or orange for your lifejacket and kayak so other boat operators can see you.
Keep signalling devices within easy reach in case of emergency.
Sea kayakers should be aware of water temperatures, tides, currents, wind and maritime traffic.
For more information on sea kayaking, checkout the Sea Kayaking Safety guide at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm
Kayaking equipment
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Personal Flotation Devices Keeping Kids afloat Equipment Personal flotation devices (PFDs) are available in a wide range of approved types, sizes and colours. While PFDs are more comfortable than lifejackets because they are designed for constant wear, they do not generally offer the same level of protection as lifejackets for: • staying afloat; and • turning you on your back to keep your face out of the water so you can breathe. choose a PFD based on your needs and activity. if you plan to operate at high speeds, look for a PFD with three or more chest belts for security. if you will be boating in cold water (water less than 15°c), choose a PFD with some thermal protection. a large selection is also available for activities such as sailboarding, kayaking and canoeing.
No matter what type of PFD you choose, you should choose a colour that makes you easy to see in the water.
There are many pros and cons to choosing a PFD over a lifejacket, but remember that a PFD may not turn you on your back if you fall in the water. The choice is yours, but think carefully before buying. you can also buy inflatable PFDs, but you must understand how to use and care for them if they are to work properly. you must also understand which activities and conditions they are approved for. above all, remember that you have to be wearing an inflatable PFD for it to be approved on an open boat. if the boat is not open then you only need to wear it while you’re on deck or in the cockpit. inflatable PFDs are not made to be worn: • by anyone under 16 years old; • by anyone who weighs less than 36.3 kg (80 lbs); • on a personal watercraft; or • for white-water paddling activities. inflatable PFDs come in the following two styles: • vest types that can be inflated orally, manually (with a co2 system) or automatically; and • pouch types that can be orally inflated or manually inflated by pulling a toggle to activate a co2 inflation system. although these PFDs inflate quickly, for weak swimmers it can seem like it takes forever. all canadian-approved inflatable PFDs have an oral inflation tube in case the co2 inflation system fails. This tube could be hard to use when you are trying to keep your head above water. an emergency is no time to try out a new device. inflatable PFDs should come with an owner’s manual. look for it and read it carefully.
Try the PFD on under supervision and before heading out to make sure you know how to use it.
To learn more about choosing a lifejacket or PFD, visit www.wearalifejacket.com
Kids should wear a lifejacket and be within arm’s reach at all times. before buying a lifejacket for your child, make sure it is canadian-approved. have your child try it on. it should fit snugly and not ride up over the chin or ears. if there are more than 7.6 cm (3”) between your child’s shoulders and the device, it is too big and could do more harm than good. look for these safety features: • a large collar for head support; • waist ties or elastic gathers in front and back; • a safety strap that goes between the legs to prevent it from slipping over your child’s head; • buckles on the safety straps; and • reflective tape.
you should also consider attaching a non-metallic pealess whistle. Do you want your child to wear a lifejacket? Set a good example and wear yours every time you are on or near the water. Parents of young children should be aware that there are no approved lifejackets for infants under 9 kg (20 lbs). To learn more about finding the right lifejacket for your child, visit http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm
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Equipment labels For a lifejacket to be canadian- approved, it must have a label that states it has been approved by: • Transport canada; • the canadian coast guard; • Fisheries and oceans canada; or • any combination of the above. lifejackets approved by the U.S. coast guard are not canadian- approved. however, visitors to canada may bring their own lifejackets to use on a pleasure craft as long as it fits and it conforms to the laws of their home country. buoyant heaving lines a buoyant heaving line is approved for use as long as it: • floats; • is in good condition; • is made of one full length of rope, not many shorter ropes tied together; • is long enough for the boat you will be using; and • is used only as safety equipment so that it is easy to find and use in an emergency. caring for your lifejacket
Treat your lifejacket like an investment and take good care of it! lifejackets that are ripped or in poor condition are not considered approved. Follow these tips to keep your lifejacket in good condition. • check its buoyancy regularly in a pool or by wading out to waist-deep water and bending your knees to see how well you float. • Make sure that straps, buckles and zippers are clean and work well. • Tug on straps to make sure they are well attached and there is no sign of wear. • Dry the lifejacket in open air and avoid direct heat sources. • Store it in a dry, well-ventilated place where it is easy to reach. • Do not dry clean. Use mild soap and running water to clean. • Never sit or kneel on your lifejacket or use it as a fender for your boat.
Lifebuoys
When buying a lifebuoy, look for a Transport canada approval stamp or label. lifebuoys must be at least 610 mm (24”) in diameter. Solas lifebuoys are 762 mm (30”) in diameter. Smaller lifebuoys and horseshoe-type devices are not approved. reboarding Devices a reboarding device allows someone to get back on the boat from the water. a transom ladder or swim platform ladder meets this requirement.
Vessel Safety equipment Manual Propelling Devices a manual propelling device can be: • a set of oars; • a paddle; or • anything that a person can operate by hand or foot to propel a boat, including the rudder on a small open sail boat or a paddle wheel on a paddle boat. anchors having the right anchor and cable for your boat is important. if you don’t, rough winds and water can cause it to drag, leaving your boat to drift. This is especially dangerous if you are asleep or swimming nearby. Make sure your boat is well anchored and keep watch to detect signs of dragging. bailers and Manual bilge Pumps bailers must hold at least 750 ml (0.2 gallon), have an opening of at least 65 cm2 (10 in2) and be made of plastic or metal. if you have a manual bilge pump, the pump and hose must be long enough to reach the bilge and discharge water over the side of the boat. you can make a bailer out of a four-litre rigid plastic bottle (useful for small open boats) by following these steps: • rinse thoroughly; • secure the lid; • cut off the bottom; and • cut along the side with the handle (as pictured). 37 navigation equipment Type c: hand Flare: The hand flare: • is a red flame torch you hold in your hand; • provides limited visibility from the ground; • is best used to help air searchers locate you; and • burns for at least one minute.
When lighting the flare, hold it clear of the boat and downwind. Don’t look directly at the flare while it is burning. Type D: Smoke Signal (buoyant or hand): • a smoke signal, either buoyant or hand: • creates a dense orange smoke for – buoyant: three minutes – hand: 50 seconds • is to be used only in daylight
Position your smoke signal downwind and follow the directions carefully.
Visual Signals distress Flares When buying distress flares, look for a Transport canada approval stamp or label. remember that flares are only good for four years from the date of manufacture, which is stamped on every flare. ask the manufacturer how to dispose of your outdated flares. Use flares only in an emergency. aerial flares should be fired at an angle into the wind. in strong wind, lower the angle to 45 degrees, at most. Flares should be kept within reach and stored vertically in a cool, dry location (such as a watertight container) to keep them in good working condition.
There are four types of approved flares: a, b, c and D. Type a: rocket Parachute Flare: • • • The rocket parachute flare: • creates a single red star; • reaches a height of 300 m (984’) and comes down slowly with a parachute; • is easily seen from the ground or air; and • burns for at least 40 seconds. Type b: Multi-Star Flare: The multi-star flare: • creates two or more red stars; • reaches a height of 100 m (328’1”) and each burns for four or five seconds; and • is easily seen from the ground or air.
Some Type B flares project only one star at a time.
When using the single star type, two flares must be fired within 15 seconds of each other. This means that you will need double the number of cartridges to meet the requirements.
Watertight Flashlights Make sure that the batteries in your watertight flashlight are still good before every trip. if you lose power, a watertight flashlight may be your only way to signal for help.
Sound-Signalling Devices boats under 12 m (39’4”) without a fitted sound-signalling appliance must carry a sound-signalling device. This can be a pealess whistle, a compressed gas horn or an electric horn.
Sound-Signalling appliances all boats 12 m (39’4”) or more must have a fitted whistle. boats over 20 m (65’7”) must also have a bell. check the collision regulations for the technical standards these appliances must meet. equipment 38 39 Navigation lights if your boat is equipped with navigation lights, they must work and meet the technical standards set out in the collision regulations.
The following table lays out some basic requirements and options for navigation lights and shapes, based on the type and length of your boat. if you have a sail boat that is also equipped with a motor, you must meet the standards for both sail boats and power boats.
Navigation light and Shape requirements and options by boat type and length remember that the following table is not complete. read the collision regulations (referred to in each category below) for more details. if you are fitting your own navigation lights, refer to the positioning requirements in the collision regulations, (annex i: Positioning and Technical Details of lights and Shapes). if you have any questions after reading the regulations, please contact us .

Boat type and length requirements options 1 2 3 4 power boats under 12 m (39’4”) — rule 23 • one (1) masthead light; • oPtional — another masthead light; • Sidelights; and • one (1) sternlight or • one (1) all-round white light; and • Sidelights WhiteredWhitegreenWhiteredgreenpower boats from 12 m to under 50 m (39’4” – 164’1”) — rule 23 • one (1) masthead light; • oPtional — another masthead light; • Sidelights; and • one (1) sternlight Whitered Whitegreen sail boats under 7 m (23‘) — rule 25 • Sidelights; • one (1) sternlight; and • oPtional — Two (2) all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red and the lower green or • one (1) lantern, combining the sidelights and sternlight above or (if requirements above are not practical) • have ready at hand an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light that you must use far enough in advance to prevent a collision. Note: optional — in the canadian waters of a roadstead, harbour, river, lake or inland waterway, a sail boat that is also being propelled by a motor may exhibit forward where it can best be seen a conical shape, apex downwards. green red white green red green red white green red white white
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equipment boat type and length requirements options 1 2 3 4 sail boats from 7 m to under 20 m (23‘ – 65’7”) — rule 25 • Sidelights; • one (1) sternlight; and • oPtional — Two (2) all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red and the lower green or • one (1) lantern, combining the sidelights and sternlight above • NoTE: oPTioNal iF < 12 m — in the canadian waters of a roadstead, harbour, river, lake or inland waterway, a sail boat that is also being propelled by a motor may exhibit forward where it can best be seen a conical shape, apex downwards. greenredWhitegreenredgreenredWhitegreenredWhitesail boats 20 m (65’7”) and over — rule 25 • Sidelights; • one (1) sternlight; and • oPtional — Two (2) all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red and the lower green
NoTE: in the canadian waters of a roadstead, harbour, river, lake or inland waterway, a sail boat that is also being propelled by a motor shall exhibit forward where it can best be seen a conical shape, apex downwards. greenredWhitegreenredgreenredWhitehuman-powered boats — rule 25 • have ready at hand an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light that you must use far enough in advance to prevent a collision. or • Same lights as listed above for sail boats, according to length WhitegreenredWhiteboats at anchor under 7 m (23’) — rule 30 if the boat is in or near a narrow channel, fairway or anchorage, or where other boats normally navigate: • one (1) all-round white light (at night) or one (1) ball (during the day); and • another all-round white light or • one (1) all-round white light NoTE: oPTioNal — any available lights to illuminate decks may be used. Whiteblackballboats at anchor from 7 m to under 50 m (23’ – 164’1”) — rule 30 • one (1) all-round white light (at night) or one (1) ball (during the day); and • another all-round white light or • one (1) all-round white light NoTE: oPtional— any available lights to illuminate decks may be used. Whiteblackballequipment
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equipment masthead light: a white light placed over the fore and aft centreline of the vessel showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 225 degrees and fixed so the light can be seen from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on either side of the vessel. Sidelights: a green light on the starboard side and a red light on the port side, each showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 112.5 degrees and fixed so the light can be seen from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on its respective side. in a vessel of less than 20 m (65’7”) in length, the sidelights may be combined in one lantern carried on the fore and aft centreline of the vessel. radar reflectors a radar reflector can enhance your safety on the water, but only if it’s big enough and well placed on your boat. reflectors help larger vessels to see small boats on their radar screens, which is sometimes the only way that they will be able to spot small boats.
When buying a reflector, there is no substitute for size — so buy the biggest one that is practical for your boat. height is also very important, so keep this in mind too. reflectors should be located above all superstructures and at least 4 m (13’1”) above the water if practical. There are all kinds of reflectors of varying quality on the market, so make sure you look carefully before buying. Sternlight: a white light placed as nearly as possible at the stern, showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 135 degrees and fixed so the light can be seen 67.5 degrees from right aft on each side of the vessel. all-round light: a light showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 360 degrees. Fire-Fighting equipment Portable Fire Extinguishers Different types of fires require different types of extinguishers. you should buy a fire extinguisher with an abc rating. The letters on a fire extinguisher tell you what types of fires it is designed to fight. Fires are classified as follows: • class a: Materials that burn, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and plastic • class b: liquids that burn, such as gas, oil and grease • class c:
Electrical equipment
The number before the letters on the extinguisher tells you how big a fire it will put out compared to other extinguishers.
For example, a 10b: c device will put out a larger fire than a 5b: c device. any fire extinguisher you choose must be certified and labelled by the U.S. coast guard (for marine use),
Underwriters laboratories of canada (Ulc) or Underwriters laboratories, inc. (Ul). you are no longer allowed to refill halon fire extinguishers. check your extinguishers often for correct operating pressure and make sure that you and your guests know how to use them. have a qualified person maintain, service and recharge your extinguishers as per the manufacturer’s instructions.
Take dry chemical devices out of their bracket and give them a few hard shakes in the upside down position (about once a month) to keep the contents active. 44 45 Suggested items if you will be on the water for more than a few hours here’s a list of items you may want to have. • Spare clothing in a watertight bag Weather conditions can change quickly, so be prepared. • Drinking water and snacks Drinking water and snacks will help avoid fatigue and dehydration. • Tool Kits and Spare Parts you may need to make repairs when you’re out on the water. Take along a tool kit and spare parts like fuses, bulbs, a spare propeller, nuts and bolts, penetrating oil, duct tape and spark plugs. you should also have and know how to use the tools and materials needed to stop hull leaks until you get to shore. bring the owner’s manual and any other guidebook you might need on your trip. • First aid While boating, you may be far from medical help, so take a first aid kit with you.
Store it in a dry place and replace used and outdated contents regularly.
Pack it to meet your specific needs. Do you know the symptoms of cold shock, hypothermia, heat exhaustion and allergic reactions? Do you know how to stop bleeding, perform cpr or treat shock? if not, take a first aid course as soon as possible. having first aid skills can make the difference between permanent injury and full recovery, or even life and death. To learn more about first aid training, contact the nearest training provider. Everyone has the right to enjoy a safe, fun time on the water.
This means that everyone also has a responsibility to respect and share waterways with wildlife, swimmers, divers, other boaters and watercraft ranging from sail boats to float planes. This section outlines some basic rules for canada’s waterways and guides you through some of the things you need to be aware of and watch out for while you’re out on the water. equipment 46 on the Water 47 on the Water rules of the road and Safety on the Water Small Vessel and Facility Security awareness how you can help respect and Protect canada’s Waterways Vessel operation restrictions
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rules of the road and Safety on the Water The “rules of the road” for canada’s waterways help everyone avoid collisions on the water by setting out what every boater should do to avoid hitting or being hit by another vessel.
This is not just a way to be polite — it’s the law.
These rules apply to every vessel and operator on all navigable waterways — from canoes to supertankers.
These rules are set out in the collision regulations under Schedule i: Section i: conduct of vessels in any condition of visibility and Section ii: conduct of vessels in sight of one another. learn the rules of the road and boat by them! here are some of the rules of the road for sailing vessels. • When each sailing vessel has the wind on a different side, the vessel that has the wind on its port (left) side must keep out of the way of the other. as you can see below, vessel a keeps clear of vessel b. • if a sailing vessel has the wind on its port side and the operator is not sure if the other vessel has the wind on its port or starboard (right) side, the first boat must keep out of the way of the other. • When both sailing vessels have the wind on the same side, the vessel to windward* must keep out of the way of the vessel to leeward. as you can see below, vessel b keeps clear of vessel a .
Keep Watch to avoid collisions Keeping constant watch for others on the water is common sense and the law. if you are sharing the water with large vessels, remember that it is harder for them to see you or change their route to avoid you. it also takes them longer to stop.
These are all good reasons to be ready to move out of their way.
Vessels less than 20 m (65’7”) and sailing vessels must stay out of the way of larger vessels that can safely navigate only within the navigation channel. a large vessel will remind you to give way by giving five or more short blasts of its horn.
This means there is an emergency and you must get out of the way. Steer clear of Shipping lanes Some boaters do not realize the risk they take when they cross shipping lanes or pass in front of larger vessels. here are some tips to remember since these vessels probably will not see you until it is too late. • always watch for others on the water and be ready to yield to large vessels in the safest way — keeping in mind the water and weather conditions.
Use radar and radio if you have them. • Navigate in groups of other small boats when possible, to be more visible. • Stay off the water in fog or high winds.
Stay clear of docked ferries, ferries in transit, vessels in tow and working fishing vessels.
give Plenty of Space to Tugs and other Towing Vessels Tugs may tow vessels on a long tow line that extends behind the tug. The tow line is often so long that it hangs below the surface of the water and is nearly invisible. Never pass between a tug and its tow. if a small boat were to hit the hidden line, it could capsize and be run down by the object being towed.
Many towed objects will also have a long trailing line behind them. give the tug and its tow plenty of space in every direction. be alert for special lights displayed by tugs (or any vessels) towing barges, other boats or objects.
The tug is usually more visible than its tow, whose navigation lights do not include masthead lights and are often much dimmer than those of the tug. if a power-driven vessel is towing another vessel or object from its stern, the power-driven vessel must display: • sidelights; • a sternlight; • a towing light (yellow light with the same characteristics as the sternlight);
*For power boat information, see page 77 of this guide.
*The windward side is opposite to the side that carries the mainsail or, in the case of a square-rigged vessel, the side opposite to the side that carries the largest fore and aft sail. look for more rules of the road on page 77 of this guide.
on the Water on the Water
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on the Water • two masthead lights in a vertical line — three if the tow exceeds 200 m (656’); and • a diamond shape where it will be easy to see if the tow exceeds 200 m (656’) — day signal. if a barge, vessel or any other object is being towed, it must display: • sidelights; • a sternlight; and • a diamond shape where it will be easy to see if the tow exceeds 200 m (656’). if the requirements above are not practical, the tow must carry one all-round white light at each end (front and back). if you’re looking to fit your boat with navigation lights for towing, refer to rule 24 of the collision regulations for details. be aware and Polite Never buzz, try to spray swimmers, or cut in front of or try to jump the wake of other vessels.
Some of the worst boating incidents happen when speed or distance is misjudged. operate at a Safe Speed you may have to stop or turn suddenly to avoid a collision, so operate at a safe speed. a safe speed depends on: • your ability to see ahead — slow is the only safe speed in fog, mist, rain and darkness; • current, wind, and water conditions; • how quickly your boat can change direction; • how many and what types of vessels are near you; and • the presence of navigational hazards such as rocks and tree stumps. be very careful when boating where visibility is poor, such as entering or exiting a fog bank. a boat’s wake can damage other vessels, docks and the shoreline. it can also be a risk for swimmers, divers and people on small boats that might capsize. be aware of how your boat’s wake might affect others when choosing your speed.
you will be responsible for any damages or harm you cause. reduce Engine Noise Every boat equipped with a motor other than a stock (unmodified) outboard engine must have a muffler and use it while operating within five nautical miles (9.26 km) of shore. This does not apply to you if your boat was built before January 1, 1960, or if you are in an official competition or in formal training or final preparation for an official competition.
Waterskiing and other recreational Towing activities
The rules that govern waterskiing also apply to other towing activities like barefoot skiing, tubing, kneeboarding and parasailing. here are rules to remember when towing someone with your boat: • There must be a spotter on board the boat who can keep watch on each person being towed and communicate with the operator. • There must be an empty seat on your boat for each person being towed in case they need to come on board. When you see either flag, give divers plenty of room by keeping your boat at least 100 m (328’) from the flag. if you can’t stay that far away because of the size of the waterway, slow down as much as possible, move ahead with caution, and keep clear of the vessel and diving site. • only personal watercraft made to carry three or more people may be used for towing. • if anyone being towed is not wearing a lifejacket, there must be one on board for him or her.
Keep your Distance from Divers below the Surface Diving is a popular water sport so, know what a diver down flag looks like and keep careful watch for such flags.
This is very important because the wake from your boat, along with weather and other factors, can make it hard to see divers’ bubbles on the surface of the water. Seaplanes as a boater, you must be aware of what is going on around you, both on the water and in the skies. Watch for aircraft anytime you are out on the water and give plenty of space to any aircraft that is landing or taking off. • No towing is allowed when visibility is poor or from one hour after sunset to sunrise. • a towing boat cannot be remotely controlled. These requirements do not apply to a boat that is being operated during formal training, in an official competition or in a skill demonstration if the boat meets the safety requirements of a governing body respecting such training, competitions or demonstrations.
Divers’boats must display the international blue and white code Flag alpha. a red and white flag that may also be carried on a buoy marks the area where diving is in progress, although divers may stray from the boundaries of the marked areas. if you decide to go diving from your boat, remember to display these flags as well. best practice includes staying within 100 m (328’) of your flag. 51 Safety around Dams be very careful near canal dams and waste weirs where currents and undertows can be very dangerous. it is against the law to jump, dive, scuba dive, swim or bathe within 40 m (131’) of a dam. low-head dams are especially dangerous. boaters and anglers often get too close to the downstream side of the dam, become drawn or sucked into the backwash current that takes Safety in historic canals and locks When visiting one of canada’s historic canals, make sure your boat has good mooring lines and securely fastened floating fenders in sufficient numbers and size. Many water activities are not allowed in a canal.
Some rules include: • no excessive noise between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m.; • no fishing within 10 m (32’10”) of a lock or approach wharf or from a them to the base of the dam, and are then forced under water. Victims are then pushed away from the dam under water. after surfacing, the victim is drawn back in toward the base of the dam, starting the cycle over again. Find out if there are any dams where you plan to go boating before you head out — and stay clear of them. bridge that passes over a navigation channel; • no diving, jumping, scuba diving or swimming in a navigation channel or within 40 m (131’) of a lock gate or a dam; • no waterskiing or other towing activities while in a navigation channel or within 100 m (328’1”) of a lock structure; and • no mooring a vessel to a navigation aid. docks, you may be told to tie up to one inside the lock chamber. • Tend vessel lines carefully during the lockage. looping a line around a deck cleat may provide extra leverage. • Never leave bow or stern lines unattended. • Switch off the engine(s) and generator. open flames and smoking are not allowed during lockage.
The bilge blower must be operating during lockage. When the lock gates open, wait for staff to direct you to restart your engine. Make sure all lines are returned to your boat and exit slowly and in order.
Watch out for wind, currents and other vessels. if you plan to use the St. lawrence Seaway locks, consult the St. lawrence Seaway Pleasure craft guide at www.greatlakes-seaway.com to learn how they operate.
Small Vessel and Facility Security awareness on the Water Visit Parks canada at www.pc.gc.ca to learn more about historic canals. Passage through a lock obey the posted speed limits and be aware of your boat’s wake when approaching a lock. Why? because wake limits are more important than speed limits in these areas. here are some other things to remember: • Keep clear of the channel near lock gates so that vessels can come and go safely. • a blue line on the mooring wharf shows where to wait for the next lockage. • Follow the instructions given by lockmasters and bridge operators (at a number of lock stations, a green traffic light is your signal to go ahead). • Enter the lock slowly (no faster than 10 km/h) and have people at the bow and stern of your boat ready with mooring lines. • if the lock has drop cables, loop boat lines around them, not to them, and only once your boat is safely positioned. if the lock has floating Transport canada believes the best way to keep small vessels and small vessel facilities safe and secure is to promote security awareness. in canada, small vessels including pleasure craft often operate near critical infrastructure such as hydro dams, power plants, chemical factories, bridges and key marine assets such as merchant vessels, ferries or cruise ships — potential targets for terrorist attacks. a small vessel could be used as: • a floating bomb; • a launch pad for attacking maritime industry or other critical infrastructure; or • a means of smuggling weapons or terrorists.
The use of small vessels for such activities could put our public safety and security, as well as our national commerce, trade and economy at risk.
That is why you should know how to reduce the risk of terrorists using small vessels and know what to do if you see any suspicious activity on or near canada’s waterways.
To learn more about security and terrorism in canada, search the internet for integrated Threat assessment centre. on the Water Maritime Security: a global concern
The international Maritime consider.
The IMO voluntary guidelines organization (IMO) is the United will help you: Nations agency responsible for • plan for security incidents; improving maritime safety and security. in 2008, it issued voluntary • offer security awareness programs; security guidelines for small vessels and and facilities. Transport canada • prevent the theft or hijacking of, and helped draft them. They encourage unauthorized access to, small vessels. you to report suspicious activities to appropriate authorities and describe best practices that we hope you will guidelines for Pleasure craft The following section is a summary of the IMO guideline’s appendix relating to pleasure craft. remember: the overall safety and security of your boat, crew and passengers are your responsibility. That is why you should follow the advice below. Search your boat Search your pleasure craft often to make sure that nothing suspicious has been placed on board, left behind or removed while the boat was left unattended. if you find something suspicious, contact the appropriate local authorities right away.
Do not handle suspicious packages or objects. Secure your Vessel Where possible, lock external doors, hatches and storage areas, and secure windows when you leave your pleasure craft unattended. if it will be left unattended for some time: • moor the vessel according to local – consider using steering locks, port by-laws; if practical; • lock ignition switches to prevent – consider etching the hull theft/unauthorized use; identification number onto • always take the ignition key with you; windows and hatches; and • consider installing a small craft – consider installing a hidden device alarm system to alert you to to shut off the fuel line, or an any unauthorized movement engine immobilizer. (integrating the alarm system with smoke and fire sensors will give you a complete vessel protection system); Protect your Property it is a good idea to mark and photograph your vessel and equipment.
This will help authorities identify stolen equipment. consider getting a radio frequency identification device (rFiD) anti-theft system, if available. Why? Such systems reduce theft risk, increase recovery rates and in some instances, reduce insurance fees. choose a Safe route Plan your route and ports of call carefully before a voyage. Make every effort to avoid areas where terrorism and criminal activities, including piracy and armed robbery, are a major threat. if you must travel through unsafe waters: • travel with other vessels as quickly • keep to a strict contact schedule, as possible; preferably via satellite, mobile • notify the maritime authorities for telephone or similar system the area before you arrive or leave; that terrorists cannot use to and locate the vessel through radio direction finding. be Prepared Make sure your emergency plans include procedures for navigation problems, health and safety issues, and security alerts and incidents. conduct regular drills to make sure that everyone on board knows what to do if a safety or security incident occurs. if you are navigating in high security-risk areas, always search your pleasure craft carefully before getting underway.
Take extra care when searching places where a stowaway might hide, such as sail lockers. if possible, conduct the search with another person for your own safety. if you do find a stowaway, contact the appropriate authorities right away. on the Water report Security incidents have a plan for reporting and recording security incidents.
The plan should include contacting the nearest police and/or coastal authorities, and nearby vessels.
To learn more about the iMo security guidelines, search the internet for MSc.1/circ.1283.
United States Small Vessel Strategy if you navigate on waterways shared with the United States, you may be interested in the Department of homeland Security’s Small Vessel Security Strategy, released in 2008. To learn more, search the internet for DhS Small Vessel Security Strategy. reporting Suspicious activities Transport canada believes the best way to keep small vessels and small vessel facilities secure is to promote security awareness. The royal canadian Mounted Police (rcMP) also has a suspicious coastal activity awareness and reporting program.
To learn about this program, search the internet for rcMP suspicious coastal activity. reporting suspicious activities is important because the RCMP, provincial and municipal police need the marine community and people who live in remote coastal areas to be their eyes and ears. There is just too much navigable water within canada and along our borders for the police to maintain marine security without help.
To learn more about Transport canada Marine Security activities, visit www.tc.gc.ca. how you can help We know that most people using small vessels and facilities are law-abiding, and that activities that appear suspicious may not be. answer the questions below and use your best judgment to decide whether or not you should report what you may see. • are unauthorized persons inappropriately trying to gain access to vessels or facilities? • are a vessel’s crew members not typical for the type of small vessel? • are crew members reluctant to leave a vessel while it is being serviced and/or are they taking unusual security measures? • is a vessel anchored or running without lights in the dark? • are there smaller vessels hovering near a larger vessel? • are there lights flashing between boats? • are crew members recovering items from or tossing items into the water or onto the shoreline? • are people or things being transferred between vessels, between a vessel and a floatplane, or between a vessel and the shore? • are vessel owners reluctant to fully identify themselves to a marina or harbour authority? is it hard for those authorities to locate owners? • Do people appear too interested in potential targets such as hydro dams, power plants, chemical factories, bridges and key marine assets such as merchant vessels, ferries or cruise ships? • is there unusual diving activity? • has someone stolen a marine facility vehicle, vehicle pass, personnel identification or personnel uniforms? • Do vessels appear to be purposely avoiding other vessels by changing direction? Do not approach or challenge anyone you think is acting in a suspicious manner. report suspicious activity to your local police service or call the rcMP at one of the numbers below.

RCMP contact numbers for reporting suspicious marine activities
Newfoundland and Labrador ________1-709-772-5400
Nova Scotia ____________________1-800-803-7267
Prince Edward island _____________1-902-566-7112
New brunswick __________________1-800-665-6663
Quebec _______________________ 1-800-771-5401
Ontario _______________________ 1-800-387-0020
Manitoba ______________________ 1-204-983-5462
Saskatchewan _________________ 1-306-780-5563
Alberta ________________________ 1-780-412-5300
British Columbia _________________ 1-888-855-6655
Yukon _________________________ 1-800-381-7564
Northwest Territories _____________1-867-669-1111
Nunavut ________________________1-867-979-1111

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Respect and protect canada’s Waterways canada’s lakes, rivers and coastal waters are ours to share, so do your part to take good care of them. it is against the law to pollute the water with things like oil, garbage, hydrocarbons and untreated sewage in inland waters. Canada has laws that protect our waterways and shorelines, and some of them apply to pleasure craft. it is your responsibility to make sure you know and obey the laws in force wherever you go boating.
The regulations for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and for Dangerous chemicals address major risks to the health of our waterways and shorelines such as sewage, garbage and hydrocarbons.
Sewage contains, among other things, human or animal body waste, drainage and other waste from toilets.
These regulations prohibit the use of freestanding portable toilets. however, a portable toilet that is secured to the vessel may be used for temporary storage of sewage.
The regulations also require that boats fitted with toilets be equipped with either a holding tank or a marine sanitation device. if your boat was built before May 3, 2007, you must comply with these regulations by May 3, 2012. boats built on or after May 3, 2007, must comply immediately. reducing Pollution from bilges oil, fuel, antifreeze and transmission fluid are a few examples of pollutants that harm the environment when pumped overboard — usually by automatic bilge pumps. bilge cleaners, even the biodegradable ones, just break down the oil into tiny, less visible droplets. absorbent bilge cloths are very useful because they are designed to absorb petroleum products and repel water. here are a few tips to help keep bilge pollution at a minimum. • Make sure your bilge is clean before turning on automatic bilge pumps. only use them when needed and when the bilge contains only water. • Use towels or bilge cloths to absorb oils, fuel, antifreeze and transmission fluid. Dispose of used towels or bilge cloths in an approved garbage container.
Stop the Spread of invasive Species Many have seen invasive species, such as zebra mussels and green crab, take over local waters. you can do your part by keeping your hull clean. This is very important if you operate your boat on a lake or river and then tow it over land to use in another area. rinsing or cleaning your hull after use or before entering new waters helps to remove spores and other invasive organisms. Some communities require this as part of local bylaws.
Use Environmentally Friendly cleaners all-purpose cleanser Mix 30 ml of baking soda or borax, 30 ml of tea tree essential oil, 125 ml of vinegar, 15 ml of biodegradable dish soap and 2 litres of hot water. Spray on the surfaces to be cleaned. chromium rub with baking soda. rinse and polish with vinegar in hot water. decK and floor Pour 250 ml of vinegar in 2 litres of water. drain Pour 60 ml of baking soda in the drain, followed by 60 ml of vinegar. let it rest for 15 minutes, then pour in a full kettle of boiling water. mould add 60 ml of borax and 30 ml of vinegar to 500 ml of hot water. Spray the mixture to eliminate germs. toilet Pour 125 ml of baking soda and 125 ml of vinegar into the toilet bowl. The foaming reaction cleans and deodorizes. brush and flush. window and mirror Mix 2 ml of liquid soap, 45 ml of vinegar and 500 ml of water in a spray bottle. Use a cotton rag to clean and shine. wood (polish) Mix 30 ml of edible linseed oil, 30 ml of vinegar and 60 ml of lemon juice in a glass pitcher. rub the solution into the wood with a soft rag until it is clean.
To store the solution, add a few drops of vitamin E from a capsule and cover. choose a holding tank or a marine sanitation device that works for you. a holding tank is only used to collect and store sewage or sewage sludge and must be emptied at approved pump-out facilities on dry land only. be sure to follow pumping instructions and avoid using disinfectants, as they may harm the environment. a marine sanitation device is designed to receive and treat sewage on board. only sewage treated with a marine sanitation device that meets the standards set out in the regulations may be discharged in inland waters. When planning your trip, check with local authorities for pump-out facility locations.
Holding Tanks and Marine Sanitation Devices Disclaimer: www.aquaticintruders.com
The links we provide to external websites are provided for your convenience only. be aware that they may not follow the official languages act.
Preventing Pollution in our Waterways on the Water
59
Remember these green boating tips, vessel operation restrictions • Make sure your engine is well maintained to reduce air pollution. • Use only paints approved for marine use. • When fuelling, do not top off tanks and clean up any spilled fuel. • Keep your bilge clean and do not pump oily water overboard. • Use bilge absorbents in place of detergents. • Do not pump your sewage over the side — use a holding tank. • obey all sewage regulations. • bring your garbage home (including cigarette butts) — do not litter. • Try not to use detergents — even biodegradable cleaners are hard on plants and animals that live in the water. • avoid shoreline erosion — watch your wake and propeller wash. • obey all speed limits for better fuel economy. • report pollution when you see it.
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if you accidentally pollute the water or you witness or see the result of someone else polluting,
report it to a
government of canada pollution prevention officer or call one of the following telephone numbers right away:
british columbia and yukon ________________________ 1-800-889-8852
Alberta,Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario,
Northwest Territories and Nunavut __________________ 1-800-265-0237
Quebec__________________________________________ 1-800-363-4735
New brunswick, Prince Edward island and Nova Scotia __ 1-800-565-1633
Newfoundland and labrador________________________1-800-563-9089

On the Water local restrictions have been placed on some canadian waterways to promote public safety. Some of these include a ban on power boats, maximum engine power limits, speed limits and a ban on recreational towing activities.
These restrictions are listed in the schedules to the Vessel operation restriction regulations. These restrictions are enforced by local authorities. Province-Wide Shoreline Speed limits Some provinces have adopted speed limits of 10 km/h within 30 m (98’5”) of shore on all waters within their boundaries. This speed limit applies in ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, alberta and the inland waters of british columbia and Nova Scotia.
This limit is in effect whether it is posted or not. Exceptions include: • recreational towing where the boat follows a path at a 90° angle to the shore in an area designated by buoys for recreational towing; • rivers less than 100 m (328’) wide, as well as canals and buoyed channels; and • waters where another speed limit is set in a schedule to the regulations. New restrictions if you feel a restriction is needed in your area, read the local authorities’ guide to Vessel operation restrictions at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm. before your request can be added to the Vessel operation restriction regulations, the need for the restriction must be assessed and public consultations held at the local level. if successful, local authorities are responsible for all sign and buoy maintenance and replacement, including all costs. To learn more about the process, see the cabinet Directive on Streamlining regulation at www.regulation.gc.ca. once a vessel operation restriction is in place, it can be enforced (in the form of tickets or summons) by: • police officers; and • persons identified in the regulations.
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Are you ready to deal with an emergency?
Do you know how to send a distress message?
calling early and knowing how to ask for help in an emergency can make the difference between life and death.
This section explains some of the equipment you can use to call for help and what to do in some emergencies. reading a restriction Sign Vessel operation restriction signs come in five shapes.
The colour of the frame is international orange.
When part of a sign has a green border, a special condition applies to the restriction.

The symbol tells you the type of restriction that applies. if the sign is arrow-shaped, the restriction applies in the direction of the arrow. Know what these signs mean. To learn more, check out the Vessel operation restriction regulations — a boater’s guide to Signage at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm. on the Water in an emergency 63 in an emergency Emergency communications reacting to an Emergency in an emergency emergency communications Marine radio communications regulated marine radio communication equipment includes: • marine VhF radios (with the new Digital Selective calling (DSc) option on channel 70); • marine MF/hF — DSc radios; • Emergency Position indicating radio beacons (EPirbs); • NaVTEX; and • inmarsat. These products and services work together to form the international system known as the global Maritime Distress and Safety System (gMDSS). They quickly relay distress alerts to the canadian coast guard and other vessels in your area.
Pleasure craft do not have to carry gMDSS-compatible equipment, but it is a good idea. if you have it, connect it to a global Positioning System receiver to make sure that your exact location is automatically sent in a digital distress alert in case of an emergency. This way, rescuers will immediately know exactly where you are and will arrive sooner. global Positioning System (gPS) While more and more boat operators rely on marine gPS to tell them where they are on the water, it is a good idea to keep charts on board in case the gPS fails.
The gps is a worldwide radio- navigation system made possible by a network of satellites and monitoring stations. its receivers can calculate where you are, anywhere on the planet, to within 30 m (98’5”).
The Canadian Coast Guard supplies a differential gps that provides an accuracy of within 10 m (32’10”). if you are using gPS on the water, make sure it is marine gPS. automotive gPS will not give you the information you need on the water Marine VhF radio and the Maritime Mobile Service identity (MMSi) Marine VhF radio is generally the best way of sending a distress alert. if you have a VhF radio, keep it tuned to channel 16. Know where you are at all times and be prepared to describe your specific location. currently, all VhF marine radio operators must have a restricted operator certificate (Maritime) — roc(M). industry canada has delegated the roc(M) to the canadian Power & Sail Squadrons (cPS). contact the cPS or visit www.cps-ecp.ca for more information about courses available in your area. if you are buying a new VhF radio, make sure it has the new Digital Selective calling (DSc) feature on channel 70. This provides automatic digital distress alerts.
The canadian coast guard provides DSC channel
70
service on the east and west coasts, as well as on the great lakes and the St. lawrence river. remember, VhF radio channel 16 is used for emergency and calling purposes only. once you contact another vessel on channel 16, switch to another working frequency. VhF channel 70 is used only for DSc (digital) communication — not voice.
Use your VhF radio as described in the VhF radiotelephone Practices and Procedures regulations.
your owner’s manual will explain how to make a DSc call to another vessel or to a shore station that has DSc capability.
To make a digital call, each radio must have a nine-digit Maritime Mobile Service identity (MMSi) number.
These numbers are assigned free of charge by industry canada. Visit www.ic.gc.ca or contact them for more information. calling for help When in extreme danger (for example, your boat is taking on water and you are in danger of sinking or capsizing), use your VhF radio channel 16 and say“Mayday”— “Mayday”—“Mayday.”
Then give the name of your boat, its position, the nature of your problem and the type of help you need. if you need help but are not in immediate danger (for example, your motor has quit and you cannot reach shore), use channel 16 and say“Pan Pan”—“Pan Pan”—“Pan Pan.”Then give the name of your boat, its position, the nature of your problem and the type of help you need. limits of a cell Phone While you may be able to get search and rescue assistance from the nearest canadian coast guard Marine communications and Traffic Services (McTS) centre by dialling *16 or #16 on a cell phone, it is not a good substitute for a marine radio and this is not the best way to issue a distress call. Why not? • cell phones can lose reception or get wet and damaged. • calling from your cell phone does not alert nearby vessels that you are in distress — they could be the ones to help you if they could hear you. • Some cell phone signals cannot be followed back to your location by rescuers. • Not all cell providers offer the *16 or #16 service. Find out if this service is available for your phone.
Emergency Position indicating radio beacons
These floating radio distress beacons can transmit for hours.
They can be manually activated or can float free from a sinking or overturned vessel.
Their signals give your position to a network of satellites, which then sends it to Joint rescue coordination centres.
They play an important role in an emergency. although pleasure craft are not required to carry them, they are a very good idea. as of February 1, 2009, signals from 121.5/243 Mhz beacons are no longer processed. as a result, only 406 Mhz beacons work on the water. all beacon owners and users should replace their 121.5/243 Mhz beacons with 406 Mhz beacons as soon as possible.
Emergency Position indicating radio beacons (EPirbs) must be registered with the canadian beacon registry at www.beacons.nss.gc.ca. remember to keep your contact information up to date.
64 65
in an emergency Distress Signals if you see a distress signal, the law requires you to see if you can help without risking your life or the safety of your boat. When possible, you must also contact the nearest Joint rescue coordination centre to inform them of the type and location of the distress signal you have seen. learning the common distress signals will help you quickly recognize when someone is in trouble so that you can place a call for help that much faster. These signals are listed at the back of this guide.
Never send a distress signal unless you are in a real emergency. Sending false distress signals is against the law. it wastes the time of search and rescue personnel, and may prevent them from answering, or take them farther away from, real emergencies. canadian coast guard VhF/DSc radios can send distress alerts that tell the canadian coast guard and nearby vessels that you reacting to an emergency overboard recovery techniques in certain weather conditions, and on some boats, it’s a good idea to wear a quick release safety harness and a safety line secured to your boat.
This keeps you from falling overboard, unless your boat capsizes.
Knowing and practising the procedures below with your guests will help them stay calm in an emergency. need help right away.
To find out where VhF/DSc services are available, visit www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca or contact a canadian coast guard Marine communications and Traffic Services (McTS) centre.
McTS centres provide Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) and a Maritime Mobile Safety Service.
VTS provides traffic and waterway information to vessels via radio communication.
When near a VTS area, listen to the local VTS radio frequency to learn the intended movements of larger vessels.
McTS centres also provide a safety service that monitors international distress and calling radio frequencies for distress calls and communications needs.
They also continuously broadcast Notices to Shipping and weather and ice reports on marine radio frequencies.
These are published along with the VTS sector frequencies in the canadian coast guard publication radio aids to Marine Navigation. you can access the most recent edition at www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca. if someone falls overboard, sound the alarm and then: • slow down, stop if possible and throw something that floats to the person (this will also mark the spot if they are under water); • assign someone to watch the person overboard; and • carefully put your boat in position to bring the person back on board.
Use a heaving line that floats, or a lifebuoy secured to the boat with a line, and recover the person from the windward side. if needed, you can secure both ends of a heavy rope, chain or cable to the boat and drape it over the side (almost touching the water) as a makeshift step. remember that if the vertical height that must be climbed to reboard your boat from the water (freeboard) is over 0.5 m (1’8”), you must have a reboarding device, such as a ladder,
Boaters should know of, and be able to use, a few different methods to recover someone who has fallen overboard.
They should also be able to decide which method to use based on the condition of both the water and the person overboard. could you get a person out of the water if they could not help you? if you fell overboard, could your guests lift you to safety?
When someone’s size, or the freeboard of the boat, makes it difficult to carry out a rescue by hand, it may be a good idea to have lifting slings and rigging on board (if not already required by the size of your boat).
Surviving in cold Water imagine that you are enjoying a warm day on your boat. you get up to grab something.
Suddenly, you lose your balance and fall into water that is less than 15°c. cold water can paralyze your muscles instantly.
Sadly, many people do not understand this danger and how important it is to avoid it. cold water shock likely causes more deaths than hypothermia.
Canada’s cold waters are especially dangerous when you fall into them unexpectedly.
For three to five minutes, you will gasp for air. you could also experience muscle spasms or a rise in your heart rate and blood pressure. Worse yet, you could choke on water or suffer a heart attack or a stroke.
Even strong swimmers can suffer the effects of cold water shock. if you are wearing a lifejacket before falling into cold water, it will keep you afloat while you gain control of your breathing and prevent drowning from loss of muscle control.
Trying to grab a lifejacket while in the water, let alone putting one on, will be very hard because of the changes your body will be experiencing. if you survive the shock of cold water, hypothermia is the next danger.
Hypothermia is a drop in your body temperature to below its normal level because of being very cold for a long time. hypothermia affects a person’s control over muscles and thinking.
Someone who is exposed to cold water and becoming hypothermic might: • shiver, use slurred speech and become semi-conscious; • have a weak, irregular or no pulse; • breathe slowly; in an emergency • lose control of body movements; • behave in ways that don’t make sense; • act confused and/or sleepy; • stop breathing; and • become unconscious. if you end up in the water, do everything you can to save your energy and body heat.
Swim only if you can join others or reach safety.
Do not swim to keep warm. you may survive longer in cold water if you: • wear a canadian-approved lifejacket so that you will not lose valuable energy trying to keep your head above water; • climb onto a nearby floating object to get as much of your body out of or above the water as possible; • cross your arms tightly against your chest and draw your knees up close to your chest to help you keep your body heat; and • huddle with others with chests close together, arms around mid to lower back, and legs intertwined.
If you have warning that your boat may sink, protect yourself from the cold by wearing multiple light layers of dry clothing and a water-or windproof outer layer under a lifejacket.
Extra protection from hypothermia includes: • floater or survival suits (full nose- to-toes lifejackets); • anti-exposure worksuits (lifejacket with a thermal protection rating); • dry suits (to be used with a lifejacket and a thermal liner); • wet suits (to be used with a lifejacket — it traps and heat water against the body); and • immersion suits (to be used in extreme conditions when abandoning a vessel).
Knowing how your safety equipment works, especially in water, is a good idea.
Test it in a warm swimming pool or in calm water before you may have to use it in an emergency.
For more information, or to see what really happens during cold water immersion,
visit www.coldwaterbootcamp.com. reacting to a Fire if you have a fire on board, make sure everyone is wearing a lifejacket and use extinguishers to control the fire. in case of a small fire, activate a fire extinguisher and aim it at the base of the flames.
Sweep the discharge nozzle from side to side and for a few seconds after the flames are completely out. otherwise, the fire may restart and there might not be enough left in the extinguisher to put it out again. if your boat is moving when a fire starts, position it so the fire is downwind from you and stop the engine if it is safe to do so under the weather conditions Even if your boat has an automatic fire extinguishing system, it must also carry the required portable extinguishers listed in the Equipment section.
More information on their care and maintenance is available from Underwriters Laboratories of Canada
( ULC ) at www.ulc.ca or the manufacturer.
Enforcement safety is a shared responsibility of canadian waterway users and the organizations that govern them. boaters must operate their boats safely.
This means you must learn and follow the rules that apply to your boat, as well as to the waters where you will be boating.
This section provides an overview of the laws and regulations for pleasure craft and related fines. Finally, it provides some good information for visitors to canada.
Enforcement on the water boating laws and regulations fines visitors to canada fines here is a list of some boating offences along with the associated fines.
Boating offence fine;
operating vessel if you are under age $250 Failing to have proof of competency on board $250 Failure to have the required pleasure craft licence on board $250 altering/Defacing/removing hull serial number $350 operating a boat in a careless manner, without due care and attention for others $350 operating a vessel with safety equipment not in good working order or not readily accessible and available for immediate use $200 operating human-powered pleasure craft without personal flotation devices or lifejackets of appropriate size for each person on board ($200) (Plus $100 for each PFD or lifejacket missing.) $200 + $100 operating a power-driven vessel without a muffler that is in good working order $250 operating a vessel to tow a person on water or in air without seating space on board for every person being towed $250 operating a vessel to tow a person on water or in air without a person on board other than the operator keeping watch on every person being towed $250 operating a vessel in a careless manner, without due care and attention or without reasonable consideration for other persons $350 operating a vessel in an unsafe manner $500
Not including administrative charges you should also know that some boating offences can result in fines to both the operator of the boat and to the person who allowed the operation of the boat.
An example of this would be allowing someone under the age of 16 to operate your PWC.
Fine amounts are subject to change from time to time. you can find a complete list of boating offences and fines under the contraventions regulations by visiting http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm.
Enforcement on the Water The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), provincial and municipal police forces and other authorized local authorities enforce the laws that apply to boats.
They may inspect your boat and monitor your boating activities to make sure that requirements are being met.
This may include checking for safety equipment, your Pleasure craft operator card and careless operation on the water.
Transport canada’s office of boating Safety helps boaters learn about boating laws with the help of tools like this guide. however, it’s important to remember that these laws only set minimum requirements.
Many boaters go above and beyond these laws to enhance the safety of their boat and guests, and Transport canada encourages everyone to do the same. boating laws and regulations enForcement canada’s criminal code applies to boating and makes activities like operating a boat while impaired, failing to stop at the scene of an accident and operating a boat that is not seaworthy, crimes.
The canada Shipping act, 2001 is the law that, along with its regulations, governs pleasure craft. it includes the requirements of some international agreements that govern the conduct of all vessels.
The most important regulations affecting pleasure craft under this law include the: • competency of operators of Pleasure craft regulations; • collision regulations; • Small Vessel regulations; • Vessel operation restriction regulations; and • regulations for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and for Dangerous chemicals.
These and other boating regulations are available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm.
70 71
Visitors to canada all boaters (both residents and visitors) on canadian waters are expected to know and obey the rules that apply in Canada.
however, if you are a non-resident of Canada and are operating a boat in canadian waters, the exceptions below apply to you. operator competency if you are a non-resident visiting canada with your boat, you are not required to carry proof of competency on board as long as your boat is in canada for less than 45 consecutive days. if you do require proof of competency (because the above doesn’t apply or you want to operate a boat licensed or registered in canada), then you may either use an operator card or similar proof of competency issued by your home state or country, or procure a canadian proof of competency.
Either way, you must keep proof of residence on board with you at all times.
Safety Equipment requirements Foreign boats (those that are licensed or registered in a country other than canada) need to comply with the equipment requirements of the country in which the boat is usually kept. if you are a non-resident of canada operating a boat that is licensed or registered in canada, the boat must meet canadian safety equipment requirements. however, in either case, you may bring your own lifejacket to use as long as it fits and meets the requirements of your home country. looking for more information?
Have questions about something you read in this guide?
This section provides contact information for Transport canada’s office of boating Safety, as well as for some other organizations mentioned in this guide. it also provides direct website links to specific topics and publications on boating safety.

Reference Enforcement
72 reFerence 73 Quick reference cards
Contact information marine and air search and rescue emergency telephone numbers website links quick reference cards lateral buoys and standard daybeacons also available at www.tc.gc.ca/transact.
Sail, Plan To make filing your sail plan easy, simply photocopy this card and fill in the blanks.
Sail plan owner information;
Name: address: Telephone Number: Emergency contact Number: boat information boat Name: licence or registration Number: Sail: Power: length: Type:   colour hull: Deck: cabin: Engine Type: Distinguishing Features: radio channels Monitored: hF:  VhF: MF: MMSi (Maritime Mobile Ser vice identity) Number:   Satellite or cellular Telephone Number: Safety Equipment on board lifejackets (include number): liferafts: Dinghy or Smallboat (include colour): Flares (include number and type):   otherSafetyEquipment:reFerence _Trip Details Update
These Details Every Trip Date of Departure: Time of Departure: leaving From: heading To:   Proposed route: Estimated Date and Time of arrival:   Stop over Point: Number of People on board: Search and rescue Telephone Number: See p. 80 for your regional search and rescue contact number.
74 75
Cardinal buoys and Special buoys rules of the road.
76 77
Contact information regional transport canada offices of boating Safety if you have any questions after reading this guide, visit the office of boating Safety website at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm .
If you still have questions, contact your regional office (listed below).
For general information, you may also call the boating Safety infoline at 1-800-267-6687.
Pacific (british columbia) 700-800 burrard Street Vancouver, british columbia V6Z 2J8 Tel.: 1-604-666-2681
Prairie and Northern (alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut) 344 Edmonton Street P.o. box 8550 Winnipeg, Manitoba r3c 0P6 Tel.: 1-888-463-0521

Ontario 100 Front Street South Sarnia, ontario N7T 2M4 Tel.: 1-877-281-8824
Quebec 901 cap-Diamant, room 253 Quebec, Quebec g1K 4K1 Tel.: 1-418-648-5331
atlantic (New brunswick, Prince Edward island and Nova Scotia) 45 alderney Drive, 11th Floor P.o. box 1013 Dartmouth, Nova Scotia b2y 4K2 Tel.: 1-800-387-4999, Atlantic (Newfoundland and labrador) 100 New gower Street, 7th Floor P.o. box 1300 St. John’s, Newfoundland a1c 6h8 Tel.: 1-800-230-3693 Distress Signals
reFerence 78 reFerence 79
Other organizations canada border Services agency border information Service: 1-800-461-9999
outside canada: 1-204-983-3500 or 1-506-636-5064 Service canada Tel.: 1 800 o-canada (1-800-622-6232)
Transport canada’s Vessel registration office Tel.: 1-877-242-8770
Environment canada Tel.: 1-877-789-7733 Email: weather.info.meteo@ec.gc.ca
canadian hydrographic Service Tel.: 1-866-546-3613 Email: infoshc@dfo-mpo.gc.ca Website: www.charts.gc.ca marine and air Search and rescue emergency telephone numbers
act smart and call early in an emergency.
The sooner your call, the sooner The St. lawrence Seaway Management corporation Tel.: 1-613-932-5170 Email: publications@seaway.ca
Canadian Power & Sail Squadrons Tel.: 1-888-cPS-boaT (1-888-277-2628)
industry canada Tel.: 1-800-328-6189
canadian beacon registry Tel.: 1-800-727-9414
government of canada Publications Marine publications and regulations Website: www.publications.gc.ca
Tel.: 1-800-635-7943

Website links Transport canada
accredited course Providers Search by Province: www.apps.tc.gc.ca/saf-sec-sur/4/pcoc-ccep/mn.aspx?lang=e
complete list: www.apps.tc.gc.ca/saf-sec-sur/4/pcoc-ccep/cpl.aspx?lang=e
office of boating Safety — regulations for Pleasure craft www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-resources-regulationsmenu-1811.htm acts and regulations;
canada Shipping act, 2001 www.tc.gc.ca/eng/acts-regulations/acts-2001c26.htm Provincial and Territorial Transportation offices www.tc.gc.ca/aboutus/prov.htm Transport canada’s construction Standards for Small Vessels (TP 1332E) www.tc.gc.ca/marinesafety/tp/TP1332/menu.htm

Pleasure craft licence PCL
www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-paperwork-paperwork_boat licence-1898.htm
Transport canada’s Vessel registration office www.tc.gc.ca/marinesafety/oep/shipreg/registration/menu.htm
list of Marine Safety certificates recognized for the issuance of a Pleasure craft operator card
www.tc.gc.ca/marinesafety/debs/obs/courses/pcoc/list-marine-safety-certif.htm or http://longlakelodge.ca/pcoc.htm

Safety rules and Tips for Personal Watercraft (PWc)
Use http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-resources-publications-pwc-menu-2262.htm
Sea Kayaking Safety guide (TP 14726E) http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/tp-tp14726-menu-1098.htm
approved Products catalogue index http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/bulletins-2002-07-eng.htm
Finding the right Flotation Device for your child http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-paperwork-paperwork_operator-360.htm

Cabinet directive on streamlining regulation www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/ri-qr/directive/directive01-eng.asp reference help will arrive.
Pacific coast joint rescue coordination centre, Victoria 1-800-567-5111 or 1-250-363-2333
great lakes and arctic joint rescue coordination centre
Trenton 1-800-267-7270 or 1-613-965-3870
St. lawrence river Maritime rescue Sub-centre Quebec 1-800-463-4393 or 1-418-648-3599
ref 80
Newfoundland and labrador coast Maritime rescue Sub-centre St. John’s 1-800-563-2444 or 1-709-772-5151
Maritimes coast Joint rescue coordination centre halifax 1-800-565-1582 or 1-902-427-8200
The Vessel operation restriction regulations
A boater’s guide to signage... http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-paperwork-paperwork_operator-360.htm
Industry canada — MMSi information and application Forms (under Maritime information)
https://sd.ic.gc.ca/pls/engdoc_anon/sd_pages.main

Canadian coast guard — radio aids to Marine Navigation www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca/eng/ccg/McTS_radio_aids
Contraventions regulations (click on Schedule i.1: canada Shipping act, 2001) http://www.laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/
Canadian hydrographie Service www.charts.gc.ca
Don’t forget your card!
Everyone who operates a motorized pleasure craft must carry proof of competency on board at all times.
For more information on boating safety, visit http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm
To order any of these publications, contact:
Order desk multimedia products and services, Transport Canada (aara-MPS) 2655 lancaster road ottawa on. K1B 4L5
Tel.: 1-888-830-4911 (in North america), 613-991-4071 (other countries) Fax: 613-991-1653
Email: MPS@tc.gc.ca Website: www.tc.gc.ca/transact reference tc-1004217

Everyone who operates a motorized pleasure craft must carry proof of competency on board at all times.
For more information on boating safety, please visit http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/marinesafety/debs-obs-menu-1362.htm

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Long Lake Cottages and Trailer Park is an accredited course provider, see http://longlakelodge.ca/pcoc.htm