Hunter's page Wildlife Issues / Managing Human-Deer Conflicts / Livestock-Coyote
Ontario Federation of Agriculture (OFA)

Crop damage, Vehicle collisions, Abatement and mitigation expenses

Intensive foraging in natural areas that affects forest regeneration, species at risk and other biodiversity objectives

Public safety risks from vehicle collisions,
Potential health concerns associated with deer diseases,
Damage to gardens and landscape vegetation in the urban environment

Ontario’s deer densities
In recent years, Ontario’s deer densities have increased into the “problem” ranges referred to above.
Many agricultural regions in southern Ontario have between 4-10 deer/km2 of deer habitat, while shield units south of Lake Nipissing have densities between 1-5 deer/km2.
Densities over 25-30 deer/km2 have been experienced in some provincial parks (e.g., Pinery and Rondeau Provincial Parks).
A density of >100 deer/km2 has been noted at the Sifton Bog in London, Ontario.

Agricultural Issues
The increasing abundance of deer in recent years is a concern to agricultural producers in Ontario.
A report submitted by the Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association (OSCIA) estimated that wildlife damage amounted to
$41 million in 1998, and the annual cost of abating wildlife damage was $7.5 million and growing (OSCIA, 2000).
Economic losses cannot be recovered from the provincial crop insurance program because the system is geared towards providing relief from heavy or catastrophic loss in a single year rather than the regular, annual loss of a portion of the crop.
As a result, crop damage by deer is a direct loss to the earnings of agricultural producers.

Ontario Federation of Agriculture (OFA)
Wildlife and Wildlife Damage Ontario farmers constantly face livestock and crop damage from wildlife.
( - RePost
Nuisance Wildlife - What can farmers do?
Published Nov 29, 2017
Updated: December 13, 2017

We all enjoy wildlife in their natural habitat.
But when their numbers increase to the point where they turn to agricultural crops, livestock or poultry for food, then farmers ask,
“What can I do?”
The simple answer is it depends on the species of wildlife causing the trouble.
Section 31 of the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

speaks to the protection or defence of property.
Under section 31, anyone who believes that wildlife is damaging or is about to damage their property, may, on their own land, harass or kill the offending wildlife.
These provisions apply to all property owners, not just farmers. However, one cannot simply shoot wildlife because it is there.
The threat must either be happening, or about to happen.
Although a hunting licence is not required to protect one’s property, you must have a firearm’s licence.

These provisions apply to all wildlife except wildlife on the endangered species list plus moose, caribou, elk or white-tailed deer.
The prohibitions on harassing, capturing or killing an endangered species need no explanation.
Moose, caribou, or white-tailed deer are “big game” species with a regulated hunting season; likely the reason for their exclusion.
Between 1998 and 2001, elk were reintroduced at four Ontario locations.
An elk hunting season in North Hastings began in 2011.

Farmers suffering white-tailed deer damage to field crops, vegetable crops or orchards can apply to their MNR District Office for an Agricultural Deer Removal Authorization.
A Deer Removal Authorization allows for the harassing or killing of deer, outside of the normal deer season.
Additional authorizations can be issued if damage persists.
Farmers who do not have the time or ability to shoot deer on an Agricultural Deer Removal Authorization can use an agent to act in their place.
You must possess a valid FBR number, and own or occupy the farms where the deer removal will occur.
Anyone with a valid hunting licence can be your agent(s).

Farmers suffering elk damage can apply to their local MNR District Office for an Authorization for Protecting Agricultural Property from Elk, which gives the farmer permission to harass or kill nuisance elk damaging or about to damage agricultural property.
Agricultural property includes standing crops, stored feed and farm fences.

For all other wildlife, including wild turkeys, farmers and other property owners can take reasonable action to protect their property, including crops, livestock, poultry or honey bees, from predation by harassing or killing wildlife damaging or about to damage property.

Farmers with nuisance Canada geese must contact the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS).
Although Canada geese are protected under federal law, farmers can obtain permits from the CWS to use “acceptable deterrent techniques”, such as sterilizing eggs or discharging firearms to protect their crops.
Contact the CWS Permits Officer at 905-336-4464 or

A couple of caveats. There is a ban on hunting and trapping wolves and coyotes in the 39 townships immediately around Algonquin Park.
As well, there are restrictions on hunting wolves and coyotes in Northern Ontario (closed season; limit 2 per hunter).
Check with MNR to determine if these restrictions apply in your area.
Nevertheless, livestock farmers can shoot wolves and coyotes in defence of property in these areas.

Finally, when bears are shot in defence of property, you are required to notify MNR.
Killing certain specially protected raptors (e.g. hawks, falcons) and fur-bearing mammals in defence of property must also be reported to MNR.

An obvious first response to wildlife damage is to allow hunting during the open seasons.
Encourage your neighbours to also allow hunting during open seasons on their property.
In some instances, trapping may be a viable solution.
It is our understanding that a municipal “no discharge of firearms by-law” does not apply when using a firearm to protect one’s property.

If you are unable to harass, capture or kill wildlife damaging or about to damage your property, then the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act authorizes the use of an agent to act on your behalf.
A number of people are authorized to act as an agent; licenced hunters (H1 Outdoors Card), licenced trappers, members of the property owners immediate family, Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals employees, person’s whose business is nuisance wildlife removal, or municipal employees responsible for wildlife control, can serve as your agent.

If you’re unable to find an agent from among the groups noted above, then there are two additional types of agents identified in the Act;
1: a named individual agent – tied to a specific property.
Usually a 30-day appointment, and must be able to be licensed as a hunter.
In the case of bears, where the response time is critical, authorization can be done over the phone.

2: a term agent – authorized to deal with all the nuisance wildlife (bears, raccoons, etc.) in a defined area, for example a specific property, concession or township.

Contact your MNR District Office for further information on either of these options.

Since July 1, 2011, the Ontario Wildlife Damage Compensation Program

provides enhanced compensation to farmers for wildlife damage to livestock, poultry or honey bees killed or injured by predators.
The Program applies to a broader range of predators and farmed animals than before.
To be eligible, farmers must provide a Premises ID plus current Farm Business Registration (FBR) number, approved documentation issued by OMAFRA for new/retired farmers, a religious exemption or a confirmation letter from the Indian Agricultural Program of Ontario.
In the case of bee damage, a Beekeeper ID under the Bees Act
is required.

When firearms used in the protection of property you must be licenced to possess or possess and acquire firearms.
Firearms and ammunition must be stored in accordance with the law.
However, in areas where it is legal to discharge a firearm, an unloaded and unlocked shotgun or rifle can temporarily be kept at hand, when needed for predator control.
The ammunition must be kept in a separate place, or locked away.
For further information on defence of property from nuisance wildlife, contact your local MNR District Office.
Alternately, you can contact your local OFA Member Service Representative or OFA’s Guelph office at 1-800-668-3276.
Download PDF file ‘Nuisance Wildlife’


<-- Back to OFA Resources Page(

Ontario Federation of Agriculture (
Livestock farmers left to the wolves (and coyotes) by recent legislative changes - RePost
Posted on 19 August 2016, update: 7 December 2017
By Mark Kunkel, Director, Ontario Federation of Agriculture

The government has missed the mark with recently announced amendments to two regulations that impact Ontario farmers ability to protect their livestock from predators.
Proposed regulatory changes would extend no hunting / no trapping zones for Algonquin wolves and coyotes into new areas of Ontario, and restrict the ability of farmers to protect their livestock from predators when there is an imminent risk.

The economic implications for livestock producers do not seem to have been accounted for in both of the proposed amendments that apply to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act
( and the Endangered Species Act, 2007

The Ontario Federation of Agriculture (OFA) has submitted a formal response to these proposed changes to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry.
We have itemized in detail, and with supporting evidence, all the red flags these changes raise for Ontarios livestock producers.
Here are highlights from OFAs formal submission
A response period of 31 days, during busy summer months, demonstrates that regulators are not in touch with the groups impacted by proposed changes.
If you really want input and feedback, consideration must be given to the audience.
The short turnaround time for farmers who will be affected by the proposed ban on hunting and trapping wolves and coyotes, effectively excludes their voices from the process.
But farmers voices should be heard.
It is their livelihood that will suffer if no hunting and no trapping zones are expanded into other areas of Ontario.
Compensation payments to livestock producers exceeded $1.6 million in 2015 paid out through the Ontario Wildlife Damage Compensation Program
The compensation does not, however, reflect the full value of the lost animals.
Coyotes were responsible for $1.2 million of claims a whopping 75%. Clearly, coyotes are a huge problem for livestock production in Ontario, and farmers need the ability to protect their assets.
The proposed amendments make no clear distinction between Algonquin wolves and coyotes.
But they are very different and should be treated differently in any regulatory changes.
OFA has requested that proposed hunting and trapping bans apply only to Algonquin wolves.
Including coyotes undermines the intent of the Endangered Species Act.
Coyotes have an extensive range throughout southern Ontario.
They have readily adapted to urban and farming surroundings, and could be consider an invasive species, not one that needs extensive protection at the expense of Ontario livestock industry.
Ontario agriculture is the backbone of the robust food system that we all depend on, and are so fortunate to have access to.
We need legislation and regulations that are developed by an inclusive, consultative process that considers and consults those whose livelihood will be directly impacted.
OFA will be actively advocating for the recommendations in our full EBR submission that can be viewed at
( For more information, contact:
Mark Kunkel, Director, Ontario Federation of Agriculture, 705-492-4752
Neil Currie, General Manager, Ontario Federation of Agriculture, 519-821-8883

(Say bye to deer and moose up north)
(Preserve the coyotes and wolf, forget the moose ?)
(more moose calf tags ?)



In response to a reduction in adult validation tags in WMU’s 41, 42, and 47, the OFAH surveyed moose hunters to gauge the level of support or opposition for the use of calf validation tags as a tool to reduce calf harvest.
Over 1,300 hunters responded to the survey and provided valuable input on moose management and how they are personally affected by moose regulation changes.
Read the full report here

In 2015, the MNRF implemented a reduced moose calf season. This change has achieved the goal of reducing calf harvest in most Wildlife Management Units (WMUs), but has not effectively reduced calf harvest in WMU s 41, 42, and 47
Currently, the average annual calf harvest exceeds the total allowable harvest in each of these units.
This means that the MNRF cannot allocate any adult validation tags without jeopardizing sustainability, even though all three populations
can still support a sustainable harvest.
Populations are declining, but they are not in crisis, as moose hunters, we have an opportunity to make additional adjustments to contribute to population health and increase adult hunting opportunities in the future.
In March 2017, the MNRF proposed to eliminate all adult validation tags in these 3 units.
The OFAH was able to convince the MNRF to maintain a few adult tags in each unit in order to consult with moose hunters about additional management options.
The OFAH Big Game Advisory Committee (BGAC) discussed the issue at length, and evaluated several management options (see Tables). In the end, the BGAC determined if the MNRF was committed to making a change in these three units, a calf validation tag (CVT) allocation was the only
realistic option without completely closing the moose season.
However, we wanted to hear directly from moose hunters to gauge the level of support or opposition to a CVT allocation prior to recommending any option to the MNRF.
This will help the MNRF understand the moose hunting community’s perspective on this issue.
NOTE: the moose management changes outlined here are the bare minimum. We will continue to pressure the MNRF for better habitat and predator
management, changes to the draw and surplus tag system, etc.

Coyotes are moose killers, study finds - Technology & Science - CBC...
Oct 24, 2013 - Coyotes may not have as fearsome a reputation as wolves, but a new study shows they are sometimes just as capable of hunting down and killing adult.. said Benson, who was unable to find any documented cases of coyotes killing adult moose, although they had been previously known to kill calves

Damage to natural environments has occurred at several locations in Ontario over
the past 20 years, for example in provincial and national parks at Pinery, Rondeau and Point Pelee.

Public Safety Issues
The greatest threat that deer pose to human health is the risk of injury or death from vehicle collisions.
Another problem associated with high deer densities is the potential for a deer population to contract and spread a transmittable disease.
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), Lyme disease, and tuberculosis are recent examples of diseases that have caused human health concerns in Canada and the United States.

MNR ( Ministry of Natural Resources ) - - Hunting in Ontario;
November 26, 2018
The New Fish and Wildlife Licensing Service is now available.
Also see the new fishing and hunting licensing service and regulations

Open fishing seasons and fish sanctuaries
Information about fishing seasons and fish sanctuaries, which restrict the times and places you can fish.

Fishing Regulations summary

Invasive species

Transporting sport fishing

How to report a natural resource violation
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs

Legal hunting does not endanger wildlife populations.
Hunting is an important activity for people around the world. For many it is still an important lifestyle for survival
MNR Hunting in Ontario,


November 26, 2018
The New Fish and Wildlife Licensing Service is now available.
Also see the new fishing and hunting licensing service and regulations

Wildlife health
Believe it or not, diseases and parasites are a natural part of a healthy ecosystem, For the most part, wildlife diseases are left to circulate without human intervention,
MNR - fish and wildlife health

Wildlife research overview
MNR - Wildlife research and monitoring program

Surveillance for the detection of Chronic Wasting Disease in Ontario
Chronic wasting disease

Changes to the Fish & Wildlife Conservation Act - Kawartha Highlands Signature Site Park
Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters, OFAH FILE: 842, October 30, 2008
For immediate release

Province of Ontario supports traditional uses in new Signature Site

Amendment to regulation protects hunting and fishing in Kawartha Highlands Signature Site Park
The Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (O.F.A.H.) supports the regulatory change to the Fish & Wildlife Conservation Act that fulfills the province’s previous commitment to allow for traditional uses, including hunting and fishing, in the Kawartha Highlands Signature Site.
The Kawartha Highlands Signature Site Park Act, 2003 and a unique Park Charter signed by four major groups, including the Ontario government, the Partnership for Public Lands and the O.F.A.H. were created to provide upper level direction for developing the management plan for the 36,000 hectare Signature Site.
"The government should be congratulated for recognizing the unique nature of the Kawartha Highlands Signature Site, maintaining longstanding cultural traditions and heritage activities like hunting and fishing and the economic benefits these activities bring to local communities," said Mike Reader, O.F.A.H. Executive Director. "To her credit, the Minister of Natural Resources recognized that an error was made, and through the proposed regulation change, she will strike the right balance between addressing the need to protect traditional uses without sacrificing protection of the local ecosystem. "The revised park management plan protects the hunting and fishing traditions of the area, allows for the continuation of existing tourist and hunt camps within the Signature Site boundaries, limited use of motorboats on some lakes and provides for ATV use by cottagers and hunters under a permitting system which was originally proposed by the O.F.A.H. earlier this year.

The Park Act and Charter signed in 2003 contained guarantees that would preserve traditional uses in the area, but the Draft Park Management Plan did not reflect this commitment and mistakenly removed many existing hunting and access rights.

The changes in the new EBR posting corrects the error and restores hunting and fishing as previously agreed by all parties to the Charter.
"The O.F.A.H. has worked tirelessly to protect the rights of our members and others in the outdoor community who have hunted and fished in the area for generations, the needs of private landowners, cottagers and businesses already operating in the area.

The restoration of these traditional activities will be environmentally neutral, as will any anticipated social consequences, but the earlier start to the bear season and spring wild turkey season will provide local operators with additional revenue generation opportunities and bring both direct and indirect economic benefits related to hunters using hotels, buying meals and related supplies, " said Reader.

The EBR posting on the proposed changes to the hunting regulations in the park will remain open for public comment until December 8, 2008 at, posting #010-4911.

Kawartha Highlands Signature Site Park Background:
* The Kawartha Highlands Signature Site Park Act, 2003, and the Park Charter were the result of extensive consultations with major stakeholders in the outdoors and environmental community, including the O.F.A.H.
* The unique nature of the Signature Site required the creation of a Park Charter, which explicitly provided for the continuation of traditional activities.
* A mistake in regulating the park similar to other parks in the province removed protection for these activities, which violated the spirit and letter of the Charter and prohibited hunting and ATV use in the park.
* The O.F.A.H. insisted that the government live up to the provisions in the Charter and restore the right to hunt and fish as has taken place in the area for countless generations.
* The use of ATV’s by hunters will be allowed under a monitoring and permit system proposed by the O.F.A.H.
* Hunting will be permitted from the first day of the open season or September 1, whichever comes first, to the last day of the open season or the Thursday immediately preceding the Victoria Day weekend, whichever comes first.
* Opportunities to hunt bear for an additional two weeks, to hunt fur-bearing mammals (excluding wolves and coyotes) and to hunt wild turkey are restored under the regulation.
* All other provisions of the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act continue to apply. With
83,000 members and 655 member clubs, the Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters is the leading fishing, hunting and conservation organization in Ontario.

For more information, visit Robert Pineo, Forestry and Wildlife Biologist, 705-748-6324 ext 240
Lezlie Goodwin: Communications Coordinator, 705-748-6324 ext 270

OFAH FILE: 842, November 4, 2008, For immediate release, Group misleads public on Kawartha Highlands
The is speaking out in rebuttal to a recent release by a group that misleads the public about the intent of the proposed changes to the Kawartha Highlands Signature Site Park regulations. "Ontarians deserve the truth regarding the proposed regulations changes to the Kawartha Highlands Signature Site Park," says Dr. Terry Quinney, O.F.A.H. Provincial Manager of Fish and Wildlife Services.

The O.F.A.H. is stepping forward to correct several misleading statements contained in the November 3, 2008 release by the Wildlands League. "In fact, the Ministry of Natural Resources proposal does nothing more than restore the integrity of the Kawartha Charter, for which Natural Resources Minister Donna Cansfield deserves congratulations," Quinney adds. Contrary to the November 3, 2008 release, the restoration of traditional hunting activities is not a "veiled attempt" to get more ATV use in the park because their use will be highly regulated, including the following stipulations:

* ATV use by Ministry of Natural Resources (M.N.R.) Permit only
* ATV access on existing M.N.R. approved road and trail system only
* ATV access restricted to areas for hunting, private property and tenured land only

The M.N.R. proposal does not permit any hunting whatsoever, from preceding the Victoria Day weekend in May, until September 1, and no new species can be hunted, compared to a few years ago, except wild turkeys for about four weeks.

So, the M.N.R. proposal, consistent with the Kawartha Highlands Signature Site Park Act, re-establishes that which was already highly regulated by the M.N.R. under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act for Wildlife Management Unit (W.M.U.) 60, within which the Kawartha Highlands Signature Site Park lies. "In truth, hunters (and cottagers, campers, boaters, etc.) asked the Ontario government not to evict us from the public lands that we’ve shared with others sustainably and safely for many generations.

In the proposal for Kawartha Highlands, Minister Cansfield, on behalf of the Ontario government has demonstrated respect for all those who would wisely use and conserve our natural environment," says Quinney.With 83,000 members and 655 member clubs, the Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters is the leading fishing, hunting and conservation organization in Ontario.

For more information visit
Contact: Terry Quinney PhD, O.F.A.H. Provincial Manager of Fish and Wildlife Services, 705-748-6324 ext 242
Lezlie Goodwin: Communications Coordinator, 705-748-6324 ext 270

Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources - Released May 5 2011
Landowner conflics / encounters with Coyotes and RacOOns
We all share responsibility for preventing and handling human-wildlife conflicts
, Coyotes find their way to residential areas where they may tear open garbage, cause concern for residents and even come into conflict with pets.
Prevent conflicts with wildlife

Homeowners can take steps to avoid attracting coyotes to their property, keep their pets and livestock safe, and reduce the potential for coyote encounters.

Preventing and managing conflicts with coyotes, wolves and foxes

Chase raccoon, red fox, coyote or wolves
The rules for chasing or hunting coyote and racOOn,
(During the open season:
you may carry or use a firearm, you must be accompanied by a dog licensed for hunting, if you chase raccoon at night
if chasing a raccoon at night, follow the firearms restrictions for hunting raccoon at night

Harass, capture or kill a wild animal damaging private property
Coyote trouble,
What you can do if a wild animal is causing damage to personal property

Hunt raccoon at night
The rules for hunting raccoons at night.

get a small game hunting licence, you need a hunting-version Outdoors Card

Recreation - Hunting

Hunting licence (Ontario residents)

W.M.U. Wildlife Management Unit 60
Adobe Acrobat Reader Document
Find a wildlife management unit (WMU) map


Landowners should also check with their municipality regarding firearm discharge bylaws in their area.

Bounties & financial incentives to hunt and trap have been illegal in Ontario since 1972.

To learn more about coyotes, including how to deal with coyote problems, call the Ministry of Natural Resources office
Strategy for preventing and managing human wildlife conflicts in Ontario
If the coyote poses an immediate threat or danger to public safety, call 911.

Be Bear Wise - MNR
People are reminded to take the necessary steps to help avoid attracting black bears into populated areas. Garbage, outdoor grills and bird feed commonly attract black bears. Minimize your chances of attracting black bears

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